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Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Supported Model Membranes by AFM

  • Berta Gumí-Audenis
  • Marina I. GiannottiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Several cellular processes, including adhesion, signaling and transcription, endocytosis, and membrane resealing, among others, involve conformational changes such as bending, vesiculation, and tubulation. These mechanisms generally involve membrane separation from the cytoskeleton as well as strong bending, for which the membrane chemical composition and physicochemical properties, often highly localized and dynamic, are key players. The mechanical role of the lipid membrane in force triggered (or sensing) mechanisms in cells is important, and understanding the lipid bilayers’ physical and mechanical properties is essential to comprehend their contribution to the overall membrane. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based experimental approaches have been to date very valuable to deepen into these aspects. As a stand-alone, high-resolution imaging technique and force transducer with the possibility to operate in aqueous environment, it defies most other surface instrumentation in ease of use, sensitivity and versatility. In this chapter, we introduce the different AFM-based methods to assess topological and nanomechanical information on model membranes, specifically to supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), including several examples ranging from pure phospholipid homogeneous bilayers to multicomponent and phase-separated SLBs, increasing the bilayer complexity, in the direction of mimicking biological membranes.

Keywords

Atomic force microscopy Force spectroscopy Model membranes Nanomechanics Supported lipid bilayers 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Material Science and Physical ChemistryUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Laboratory of Self-Organizing Soft Matter and Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and ChemistryInstitute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red (CIBER), Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain

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