Advertisement

Drivers of Development

  • M. G. Quibria
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter highlights four serendipitous things that happened in the 1970s, mostly unforeseen by the economists and disconnected from the bloody political process of that time, which laid the foundation of the present Bangladesh economy. These relate to the emergence of the ready-made garment industry, the start of international labor exports to the Middle East, the surge in agricultural growth, and the rise of nongovernmental organizations. Notwithstanding various challenges, these four drivers of development have remained robust to this day and have contributed to the country’s economic and social progress.

Keywords

Ready-made garments International labor migration and remittances Agriculture and nongovernmental organizations 

References

  1. Abed, Fazle. 2013. Bangladesh’s Health Revolution. The Lancet 382: 2048–2049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrar, C.R. 2017. Lowering the Costs of Migration. The Daily Star, February 23. https://www.thedailystar.net/drivers-economy/lowering-the-costs-migration-1364815. Accessed 9 Aug 2018.
  3. Adams, R.H., and John Page. 2005. Do International Migration and Remittances Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries? World Development 33 (10): 1645–1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed, Raisuddin, and Steven Haggleblade. 2000. Introduction. In Out of the Shadow of Famine: Evolving Food Markets and Food Policy, ed. Raisuddin Ahmed, Steven Haggleblade, and Taufiq-e-Elahi Chowdury. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Applebaum, Richard, and Nelson Lichtenstein. 2016. Introduction. In Achieving Workers Rights in the Global Economy, ed. Richard Applebaum and Nelson Lichtenstein, 1–25. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Banerjee, Abhijeet, Dean Karlan, and Jonathan Zinmand. 2015. Six Randomized Evaluations of Microcredit: Introduction and Further Steps. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 7: 1–21.Google Scholar
  7. Bangladesh Financial Intelligence Unit. 2015. NGO/NPO Sector Assessment of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Bangladesh Financial Intelligent Unit.Google Scholar
  8. BBS, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2014. Report on Survey on the Use of Remittances. Statistical Report. Dhaka: Government of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  9. BGMEA. 2018. Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. July 16. http://www.bgmea.com.bd/home/pages/tradeinformation.
  10. BMET. 2018. Bureau of Manpower, Employment and Training. August 31. http://www.old.bmet.gov.bd/BMET/stattisticalDataAction. Accessed 14 Sept 2018.
  11. BRAC. 2017. BRAC at a Glance. December. http://www.brac.net/sites/default/files/ataglance/BRAC-at-a-glance-Dec-2017e2.pdf. Accessed 31 Aug 2018.
  12. Chowdhury, Mustaq, and others. 2013. The Bangladesh Paradox: Exceptional Health Achievement Despite Economic Poverty. The Lancet 382: 1734–1745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deb, Uttam. 2016. Agricultural Transformations in Bangladesh: Extent, Drivers, and Implications. Paper presented at the BAEA 15th Conference. Dhaka.Google Scholar
  14. Desilver, Drew. 2018. Despite Talk of ‘Trade War’ with China, Highest U.S. Tariffs Are on Imports from Other Asian Countries. Pew Research Center, April 5. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/04/05/despite-talk-of-trade-war-with-china-highest-u-s-tariffs-are-on-imports-from-other-asian-countries/. Accessed 10 Aug 2018.
  15. Dhaka Tribune. 2017. Migrant Workers’ Dreams End in Body Bags. December 18.Google Scholar
  16. Dinh, Hinh, Thomas Rawski, Ali Zafar, Lihong Wang, and Eleonora Mavroeidi. 2013. Tales from the Development Frontier. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Economist. 2013. Feeding 1.36 Billion People Daily Bread. October 26. https://www.economist.com/china/2013/10/26/daily-bread. Accessed 15 Sept 2018.
  18. ———. 2017. Worries About Falling Remittances. June 8. Accessed 15 Sept 2018.Google Scholar
  19. Faini, Riccardo. 2007. Remittances and the Brain Drain: Do More Skilled Migrants Remit More? The World Bank Economic Review 21 (1): 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Food and Agricultural Organization. 2014. FAO STATS: Online Database. Rome.Google Scholar
  21. Grameen Bank. 2018. Grameen Bank: Introduction. January. http://www.grameen.com/introduction/. Accessed 3 Sept 2018.
  22. Haeth, Rachel, and Mushfique Mobarak. 2015. Manufacturing Growth and the Lives of Bangladeshi Women. Journal of Development Economics 115: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hashemi, Syed, Sidney Schuler, and Ann Riley. 1996. Rural Credit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh. World Development 24: 635–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hulme, David, and Michael Edward. 1997. NGOs, State and Donors: Too Close for Comfort? London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hussain, Zahid. 2014. World Economic Forum. September 22. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/09/remittances-multiplier-bangladesh-migration-labour/. Accessed 8 Aug 2018.
  26. International Labor Organization. 2014. Wages in Asia and the Pacific: Dynamic but Uneven Progress. ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific: Regional Economic and Social Analysis Unit (RESA). December. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/%2D%2D-asia/%2D%2D-ro-bangkok/%2D%2D-sro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_325219.pdf. Accessed 18 July 2018.
  27. ———. 2015. Skilling the Workforce: Labour Migration and Skills Recognition and Certification. Dhaka: International Labor Organization.Google Scholar
  28. International Migration Organization. 2017. Current Migration Trends from Bangladesh to Italy. IOM Italy. Rome: International Migration Organization. Briefing: https://italy.iom.int/sites/default/files/documents/IOM_Italy_Briefing_01_Migration_trends_from_Bangladesh_to_Italy.pdf
  29. Islam, Asadul, and Maitra Pushkar. 2012. Health Shocks and Consumption Smoothing in Rural Households: Does Microcredit Have a Role to Play? Journal of Development Economics 97 (2): 232–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jaim, W.H.M., and Shaheen Akter. 2012. Seed, Fertilizer and Innovations in Bangladesh: Industry and Policy Issues. IFPRI Project Paper. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  31. Karim, Lamia. 2008. Demystifying Microcredit: The Grameen Bank, NGOs, and Neoliberalism in Bangladesh. Cultural Dynamics 20 (1): 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ———. 2014. Analyzing Women’s Empowerment: Microfinance and Garment Labor. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 38 (2): 153–166.Google Scholar
  33. Kazmin, Amy. 2018. Rana Plaza Five Years on—Safety Is Greater but Not Guaranteed. Financial Times, April 23. https://www.ft.com/content/7ec413ec-46e6-11e8-8ee8-cae73aab7ccb
  34. Khan, Mustaq. 2013. The Political Settlement, Growth and Technical Progress in Bangladesh. DIIS Working Paper 2013:01. London: DIIS Working Paper 2013:01.SOAS, London University.Google Scholar
  35. Mascarenhas, Anthony. 1986. Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood. London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
  36. NGO Affairs Bureau. 2018. NGO Affairs Bureau. July. http://www.ngoab.gov.bd/site/page/4623023a-745a-4593-8633-96c6cbda7f97/List-of-Local-NGOs. Accessed 4 Sept 2018.
  37. Niimi, Yoko, Caglar Ozden, and Maurice Schiff. 2010. Remittances and the Brain Drain: Skilled Migrants Do Remit Less. Annales d’Économie et de Statistique 97/98: 123–142.Google Scholar
  38. Osmani, S.R., Akhter Ahmed, Tahmeed Ahmed, Naomi Hossain, Saleemul Huq, and Asif Shahan. 2016. Strategic Review of Food Security and Nutrition in Bangladesh. Dhaka: World Food Program.Google Scholar
  39. Pitt, M.M., and S.R. Khandker. 1998. The Impact of Group-based Credit on Poor households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter? Journal of Political Economy 106 (5): 958–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pitt, Mark, S.R. Khanker, and J. Cartwright. 2006. Empowering Women with Microfinance: Evidence from Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change 54 (4): 791–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Polyani, Michael. 1966. The Tacit Dimension. Chicago: University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Rhee, Y.W. 1990. The Catalyst Model of Development: Lessons from Bangladesh’s Success with Garments Exports. World Development 18 (2): 336–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roodman, David, and Jonathan Morduch. 2014. The Impact of Microcredit on the Poor in Bangladesh: Revisiting the Evidence. The Journal of Development Studies 50 (4): 583–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sen, Amartya. 2013. What’s Happening in Bangladesh? The Lancet 382: 1966–1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. United Nations. 2017. International Migration Report 2017. Annual. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  46. USAID. 2015. Food Security Country Framework for Bangladesh (FY 2015–2019). Washington, DC: FHI 360/FANTA.Google Scholar
  47. Werker, Eric D., and Faisal Z. Ahmed. 2008. What Do Non-Governmental Organizations Do? Journal of Economic Perspectives 22 (2): 73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. World Bank. 1995. Working with NGOs: A Practical Guide to Operational Collaboration Between the World Bank and Nongovernmental Organizations. Operational Directive. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  49. ———. 2006. Economics and Governance of Nongovernmental Organizations in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Series, Paper 11. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  50. ———. 2012. Bangladesh: Towards Accelerated, Inclusive and Sustainable Growth—Opportunities and Challenges (In Two Volumes) Volume II: Main Report. Country Economic Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  51. Yardley, Jim. 2013. Garment Trade Wields Power in Bangladesh. New York Times, July 24. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/25/world/asia/garment-trade-wields-power-in-bangladesh.html. Accessed 29 July 2018.
  52. Yoshino, Naoyuki, Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary, and Miyu Otsuka. 2017. International Remittances and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Asian Developing Countries. Working Paper 759. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute.Google Scholar
  53. Yunus, Mohammad, and Tatsufumi Yamagata. 2012. The Garment Industry in Bangladesh. In Dynamics of the Garment Industry in Low-Income Countries: Experience of Asia and Africa, ed. Fukunishi Takahir, 1–28. Tokyo: IDE-JETRO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Quibria
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsMorgan State UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations