Advertisement

Mistrust pp 49-71 | Cite as

Radical Forms of Mistrust

  • Florian Mühlfried
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter deals with radical forms of mistrust, expressed in efforts towards maximal detachment from the social environment. Such efforts become particularly evident in times of fundamental social change. In the Caucasus, a set of upheavals has created a genealogy of embodiments of mistrust. The Russian colonisation of the Caucasus created the Abreks, social bandits who lived off the spoils of raids on the colonisers. Afterwards, the Soviet gulag system gave birth to a criminal figure called ‘thief in law’, who preached the rejection of all forms of co-operation with the state and the society. The most recent representative of this genealogy is the jihadist, who considers people outside of his religious community as victims. All these embodiments of mistrust are accompanied by a proclaimed contempt of death. By accepting death in the course of one’s life, the power of the distrusted environment is meant to be brought to a standstill.

Keywords

Abrek Thief in law Jihadism Death 

References

  1. Amirejibi, Chabua. 1985 [1975]. Data Tutashkhia. Moscow: Raduga.Google Scholar
  2. Applebaum, Anne. 2003. Gulag: A History of the Soviet Concentration Camps. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  3. Asad, Talal. 2007. On Suicide Bombing. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baldaev, Danzig. 2006. Drawings. In Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia II, ed. D. Murray and S. Sorrell. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  5. Banfield, Edward C. 1958. The Moral Basis of a Backward Society. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bobrovnikov, Vladimir. 2007. Bandits and the State: Designing a “Traditional” Culture of Violence in the Russian Caucasus. In Russian Empire: Space, People, Power, 1700–1930, ed. J. Burbank, M. von Hagen, and A. Remnev, 239–267. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2008. Abrek. In Encyclopaedia of Islam, 29–30. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Candea, Matei, Jo Cook, Catherine Trundle, and Tom Yarrow. 2015. Introduction. In Detachment: Essays on the Limits of Relational Thinking, ed. M. Candea, J. Cook, C. Trundle, and T. Yarrow, 1–31. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  10. di Puppo, Lili, and Nodar Dugladze. 2004. Die postsowjetische Mafia. Junge Welt, 18 September: 10.Google Scholar
  11. Douglas, Mary. 1966. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frederiksen, Martin Demant. 2013. Young Men, Time and Boredom in the Republic of Georgia. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gould, Rebecca. 2007. The Abrek in Chechen Folklore. Amirani XIV–XV: 37–46.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2010. Transgressive Sanctity: The Abrek in Chechen Culture. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 8 (2): 271–306.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2014. The Lonely Hero and Chechen Modernity: Interpreting the Story of Gekha the Abrek. Journal of Folklore Research 51 (2): 199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. ———. 2016. Writers and Rebels: The Literature of Insurgency in the Caucasus. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1969. Bandits. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar
  18. Humphrey, Caroline. 1999. Russian Protection Rackets and the Appropriation of Law and Order. In States and Illegal Practices, ed. J.M. Heyman, 199–232. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  19. Javakhishvili, Mikheil. 1935. Arsena Marabdeli. Tbilisi: Federatsia.Google Scholar
  20. Köksal, Pınar, Ayşegül Aydıngün, and Hazar Ege Gürsoy. 2018. Religious Revival and Deprivatization in Post-Soviet Georgia: Reculturation of Orthodox Christianity and Deculturation of Islam. Politics and Religion: 1–29.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755048318000585.
  21. Kupatadze, Alexander. 2010. ‘Transitions After Transitions’: Coloured Revolutions and Organized Crime in Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews.Google Scholar
  22. Laidlaw, James. 2015. Detachment and Ethical Regard. In Detachment: Essays on the Limits of Relational Thinking, ed. M. Candea, J. Cook, C. Trundle, and T. Yarrow, 130–146. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Lobjanidze, Givi, and Giorgi Ghlont’i. 2004. K’anonieri kurdebi sakartveloshi: ist’oria da realoba [Thieves in Law in Georgia—History and Reality]. Tbilissi: TraCCC.Google Scholar
  24. Luhmann, Niklas. 2014 [1968]. Vertrauen. Konstanz: UVK/Konstanz University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Manning, Paul. 2014. When Goblins Come to Town: The Ethnography of Urban Hauntings in Georgia. In Monster Anthropology in Australasia and Beyond, ed. Yasmine Musharbash and Geir Henning Presterudstuen, 161–177. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. Mühlfried, Florian (ed.). 2018. Mistrust: Ethnographic Approximations. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag.Google Scholar
  27. Naimark, Norman M. 2007. Revolution, Stalinismus und Genozid. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 44–45: 14–20.Google Scholar
  28. Nordin, Virginia Davis, and Georgi [Ghlont’i Glonti, Giorgi]. 2006. Thieves of the Law and the Rule of Law in Georgia. Caucasian Review of International Affairs 1 (1): 49–64.Google Scholar
  29. Oleinik, Anton N. 2003. Organized Crime, Prison and Post-Soviet Societies. Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  30. Panikarov, Ivan. 2007. Kolyma - Daten und Fakten. Osteuropa 57: 267–283.Google Scholar
  31. Pedersen, Morten Axel. 2013. The Fetish of Connectivity. In Objects and Materials: A Routledge Companion, ed. G. Evans, E. Silva, and N. Thoburn, 197–207. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Plutser-Sarno, Alexei. 2003. Introduction: The Language of the Body and Politics: The Symbolism of Thieves’ Tatoos. In Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia I, ed. D. Murray and S. Sorrell, 26–52. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 2006. Introduction: “All Power to the Godfathers!” In Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia II, ed. D. Murray and S. Sorrell, 32–57. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  34. Ratelle, Jean-François, and Emil Aslan Souleimanov. 2017. Retaliation in Rebellion: The Missing Link to Explaining Insurgent Violence in Dagestan. Terrorism and Political Violence 29 (4): 573–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sedlenieks, Klavs. 2013. “And Burn Today Whom Yesterday They Fed”: Citizens and State in Montenegro. PhD thesis, Tallinn University Press, Tallinn.Google Scholar
  36. Shalikashvili, Moris. 2009. “Diebe im Gesetz”. Ein kriminelle Organisation im deutschen Jugendstrafvollzug? Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Hamburg.Google Scholar
  37. Slade, Gavin. 2013. Reorganizing Crime: Mafia and Anti-Mafia in Post-Soviet Georgia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr. 2002 [1973]. The Gulag Archipelago. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  39. Souleimanov, Emil Aslan, and Huseyn Aliyev. 2017. How Socio-Cultural Codes Shaped Violent Mobilization and Pro-Insurgent Support in the Chechen Wars. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sprau, Mirjam. 2014. Kolyma und Magadan. Ökonomie und Lager im Nordosten der Sowjetunion. In Gulag – Texte und Dokumente, 1929–1956, ed. J. Landau and I. Scherbakowa, 80–91. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag.Google Scholar
  41. Stephenson, Svetlana. 2015. Gangs of Russia: From the Streets to the Corridors of Power. Ithaka, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Strathern, Marilyn. 2014. Reading Relations Backwards. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 20 (1): 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tilly, Charles. 2005. Trust and Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Turner, Victor. 1969. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. New York: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  45. Turner, Victor Witter. 2017 [1969]. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-structure. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. van Gennep, Arnold. 2013 [1909]. The Rites of Passage. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Varese, Federico. 1998. The Society of the vory-v-zakone, 1930s–1950s. Cahiers du Monde Russe 39 (4): 515–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zviadadze, Sophie. 2018. The Unbearable Lightness of Being Muslim and Georgian: Religious Transformation and Questions of Identity Among Adjaras Muslim Georgians. Region: Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia 7 (1): 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian Mühlfried
    • 1
  1. 1.Social Anthropology ProgrammeIlia State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia

Personalised recommendations