Advertisement

CSR, Employee Commitment, and Survival During Crisis Period: The Case of Tunisia

  • Menel Ben Mlouka
  • Rafla Hefaiedh
Chapter

Abstract

The 2011 Tunisian Revolution impacted companies’ stability and its internal environment. In this chapter, we aim to understand how CSR practices influenced employees’ commitment to allow for company survival during the crisis period caused by the Tunisian revolution.

To address this issue, a qualitative method based on four case studies with a thematic content analysis was conducted. Our results show that employees play a dual role in the societal pressures faced by companies. They can be a source of both pressure and stability in post-revolutionary Tunisia. Moreover, it appears that the nature of CSR practices dedicated to employees influences their behavior in terms of organizational commitment, thus allowing the association of a type of organizational commitment (Meyer and Allen, Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61–89, 1991) with different CSR practices adopted.

Keywords

Corporate social responsibility Employee Commitment Crisis 

References

  1. Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S Back in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Multilevel Theory of Social Change in Organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836–863.Google Scholar
  2. Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What We Know and Don’t Know About Corporate Social Responsibility: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 932–968.Google Scholar
  3. Albinger, H. S., & Freeman, S. J. (2000). Corporate Social Performance and Attractiveness as an Employer to Different Job Seeking Populations. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(3), 243–253.Google Scholar
  4. Ali, I., Rehman, K., Ali, S. I., Yousaf, J., & Zia, M. (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility Influences, Employee Commitment and Organizational Performance. African Journal of Business Management, 4(12), 2796–2801.Google Scholar
  5. Backhaus, K. B., Stone, B. A., & Heiner, K. (2002). Exploring the Relationship Between Corporate Social Performance And Employer Attractiveness. Business and Society, 41(3), 292–318.Google Scholar
  6. Barabel, M. (2012). Regard croisés sur l’engagement: “Comment obtenir l’engagement des salariés en 2013?”. Question(s) de management, 1(2), 123.Google Scholar
  7. Basu, K., & Palazzo, G. (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility: A Process Model of Sensemaking. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 122–136.Google Scholar
  8. Beltaifa, N., & Ben Ammar Mamlouk, Z. (2009). Multidimensionnalité et déterminants de la justice organisationnelle: étude empirique dans le contexte tunisien. 18ème Conférence de l’AIMS, Grenoble.Google Scholar
  9. Ben Rhouma, A. (2008). Étude des déterminants de la divulgation environnementale et sociale des entreprises françaises. Thèse en science de gestion, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis.Google Scholar
  10. Blau, G. J., & Boal, K. B. (1989). Using Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment Interactively to Predict Turnover. Journal of Management, 15(1), 115–127.Google Scholar
  11. Boutiba, R., Boussoura, E., & Zeribi, O. (2016). La représentation de la responsabilité sociale des entreprises à travers le discours des responsables d’entreprise en Tunisie. Revue Interdisciplinaire Management, Homme & Entreprise, 20(1), 25–44.Google Scholar
  12. Bouyoud, F. (2010). Le management stratégique de la responsabilité sociale des entreprises, thèse de doctorat. Thèse de doctorat, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers.Google Scholar
  13. Bowen, H. R. (1953). Social Responsibilities of the Businessman. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  14. Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The Contribution of Corporation Social Responsibility to Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701–1719.Google Scholar
  15. Buchanan, B. (1974). Building Organizational Commitment: The Socialization of Managers in Work Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19(4), 533–546.Google Scholar
  16. Caldwell, D. F., Chatman, J. A., & O’Reilly, C. A. (1990). Building Organizational Commitment: A Multi-Form Study. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(3), 245–261.Google Scholar
  17. Carroll, A. B. (1979). A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Social Performance. Academy of Management Review, 4, 497–505.Google Scholar
  18. Chaabouni, J., & Véry, P. (2015). Crise, transition. Comment les firmes tunisiennes s’en sortent-elles? Tunis: Edition C.L.E.Google Scholar
  19. Chouaib, A., & Zaddem, F. (2013). The Ethical Climate at Work. Promoting Trust in Organizations. RIMHE: Revue Interdisciplinaire Management, Homme & Entreprise, 5(9), 15–30.Google Scholar
  20. Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the Millennium: A Meta- Analytic Review of 25 Years of Organizational Justice Research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425–445.Google Scholar
  21. Dawkins, J. (2004). Corporate Responsibility: The Communication Challenge. Journal of Communication Management, 9(2), 108–119.Google Scholar
  22. Delallieux, G. (2007). Responsabilité Sociale des Entreprises et ONG: une approche critique des dimensions politiques de la gestion des ONG. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Lille I, IAE de Lille.Google Scholar
  23. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building Theories from Case Study Research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550.Google Scholar
  24. Freeman, E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  25. Frimousse, S., & Peretti, J.-M. (2015). Regards croisés sur Engagement RSE & performance. Question(s) de management, 1(9), 65–89.Google Scholar
  26. Golli, A., Swalhi A., & Yahyaoui, D. (2011). Climat éthique et implication organisationnelle: quels liens dans le cadre des entreprises tunisiennes? AGRH. Available from https://www.agrh.fr/assets/actes/2011golli-swalhi-yahiaoui.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2018.
  27. Greening, D. W., & Gray, B. (1994). Testing Model of Organizational Response to Social and Political Issues. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 467–498.Google Scholar
  28. Greening, D. W., & Turban, D. B. (2000). Corporate Social Performance as a Competitive Advantage in Attracting a Quality Workforce. Business and Society, 39(3), 254–280.Google Scholar
  29. Hofman, P. S., & Newman, A. (2013). The Impact of Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Commitment and the Moderating Role of Collectivism and Masculinity: Evidence from China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(5), 1–22.Google Scholar
  30. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Newbury Park: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Kalliath, T. J., Bluedorn, A. C., & Strube, M. J. (1999). A Test of Value Congruence Effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(7), 1175–1198.Google Scholar
  33. Kanter, R. (1968). Commitment and Social Organization: A Study of Commitment Mechanisms in Utopian Communities. American Sociological Review, 33(4), 499–517.Google Scholar
  34. Kiesler, C. A. (1971). The Psychology of Commitment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lee, K., Allen, N. J., Meyer, J. P., & Rhee, K.-Y. (2001). The Three-Component Model of Organisational Commitment: An Application to South Korea. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(4), 596–614.Google Scholar
  36. Martin, T. N., & Hafer, J. C. (1995). The Multiplicative Interaction Effects of Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment on Turnover Intentions of Full-and- Part Time Employees. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44, 310–331.Google Scholar
  37. Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A Review and Meta-analysis of the Antecedents, Correlates and Consequences of Organizational Commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 171–194.Google Scholar
  38. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. (1991). A Three-Component Model Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61–89.Google Scholar
  39. Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the Workplace: Toward a General Model. Human Resource Management Review, 11(3), 299–326.Google Scholar
  40. Meyer, J. P., & Smith, C. A. (2000). HRM Practices and Organizational Commitment: Test of a Mediation Model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Science, 17(4), 319–331.Google Scholar
  41. Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. D., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20–52.Google Scholar
  42. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (2003). Analyse des données qualitatives (2nd ed.). Paris: Edition de Boeck Université.Google Scholar
  43. Morrow, P. C. (1983). Concept Redundancy in Organizational Research: The Case of Work Commitment. Academy of Management Review, 8(3), 486–500.Google Scholar
  44. Moskowitz, M. (1972). Choosing Socially Responsible Stocks. Business & Society Review, 1, 71–75.Google Scholar
  45. Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. (1982). Employee- Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. O’Reilly, C. A., & Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational Commitment and Psychological Attachment: The Effects of Compliance, Identification, and Internalization on Prosocial Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 492–499.Google Scholar
  47. Paillé, P. (2002). L’engagement normatif: essai de reconstruction. Psychologie du travail et des organisations, 8(3), 69–96.Google Scholar
  48. Paillé, P. (2005). Engagement organisationnel et modes d’identification. Dimensions conceptuelle et empirique. Bulletin de psychologie, 6(480), 705–711.Google Scholar
  49. Pasquero, J. (2006). Introduction: La responsabilité sociale comme nouvelle forme de régulation socioéconomique. Revue Gestion, 31(2), 51–54.Google Scholar
  50. Paullay, I. M., Alliger, G. M., & Stone-Romero, E. F. (1994). Construct Validation of Two Instruments Designed to Measure Job Involvement and Work Centrality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(2), 224–228.Google Scholar
  51. Peretti, J.-M. (2012). Comment obtenir l’engagement des salariés en 2013? Question(s) de management, 1(2), 119–137.Google Scholar
  52. Peterson, D. K. (2004). The Relationship Between Perceptions of Corporate Citizenship and Organizational Commitment. Business & Society, 43, 296–319.Google Scholar
  53. Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational Commitment. Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Among Psychiatric Technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603–609.Google Scholar
  54. Rapport de la Banque Centrale de Tunisie. (2013). États Financiers et Rapport Des Commissaires Aux Comptes Exercice Clos Le 31 Decembre 2012. Available from https://www.bct.gov.tn/bct/siteprod/documents/etat2012.pdf
  55. Reichers, A. E., & Schneider, B. (1990). Climate and Culture: An Evolution of Constructs. In B. Schneider (Ed.), Organizational Climate and Culture (pp. 5–39). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  56. Reynaud, S., Leclercq, N., Romaine-Lioud, S., Ferrier-Pagés, C., Jaubert, J., & Gattuso, J.-P. (2003). Interacting Effects of CO2 Partial Pressure and Temperature on Photosynthesis and Calcification in a Scleractinian Coral. Global Change Biology, 9(11), 1660–1668.Google Scholar
  57. Rojot, J., Roussel, P., & Vandenberghe, C. (2014). Comportement organisationnel: Théories des organisations, motivation au travail, engagement organisationnel. Paris: De Boeck Education.Google Scholar
  58. Rupp, D. E., Ganapathi, J., Aguilera, R. V., & Williams, C. A. (2006). Employee Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility: An Organizational Justice Framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 537–543.Google Scholar
  59. Savall, H., & Zardet, V. (2004). Recherche en sciences de gestion: approche qualimétrique. Paris: Edition Economica.Google Scholar
  60. Smith, C., Organ, A., Dennis, W., & Near, J. (1983). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653–663.Google Scholar
  61. Story, J., & Neves, P. (2015). When Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Increases Performance: Exploring the Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic CSR Attribution. Business Ethics: A European Review, 24(2), 111–124.Google Scholar
  62. Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610.Google Scholar
  63. Thiétart, R.-A. (2014). Méthodes de recherche en management. Paris: Edition Dunod.Google Scholar
  64. Trevino, L. K., Hartman, L. P., & Brown, M. (2000). Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership. California Management Review, 42(4), 128–142.Google Scholar
  65. Turki, A. (2015). La PME et le développement durable: une analyse selon la perspective néo-institutionnelle. In J. Chaabouni & P. Véry (Eds.), Crise, transition: Comment les firmes tunisiennes s’en sortent-elles? (pp. 173–196). Tunis: Edition C.L.E.Google Scholar
  66. Vazirani, N. (2005). Employee Engagement. SIES College of Management Studies, Working Paper Series. Accessed 26 Apr 2011.Google Scholar
  67. Visser, W. (2010). The Age of Responsibility: CSR 2.0 and the New DNA of Business. Journal of Business Systems, 5(2), 7–22.Google Scholar
  68. Wood, D. J., & Jones, R. E. (1995). Stakeholder Mismatching: A Theoretical Problem in Empirical Research in Corporate Social Performance. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 3(3), 229–267.Google Scholar
  69. Zayani, N. (2016). Amélioration de l’engagement organisationnel dans les services nettoiement des collectivités territoriales en Tunisie. Thèse de Doctorat, Sociologie, Université Paul-Valéry-Montpellier.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Menel Ben Mlouka
    • 1
  • Rafla Hefaiedh
    • 1
  1. 1.ESSEC TunisTunisTunisia

Personalised recommendations