Extra-intestinal Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Diagnosis and Management

  • Ramesh Paramsothy
  • Peter IrvingEmail author


Inflammatory bowel disease is a systemic disorder that not only affects the gastrointestinal tract but can also be associated with extra-intestinal manifestations involving multiple organs. These most commonly include articular (axial and appendicular), dermatologic or ophthalmic involvement but can also more rarely include the renal and pulmonary systems. The clinical course can either mirror intestinal disease activity or be independent of it. Currently there is a need for effective biomarkers in this area as there are none available. While biomarkers are used for related rheumatological conditions, they are not effective as diagnostic or prognostic markers for extra-intestinal manifestations of IBD. Management of extra-intestinal manifestations may involve treating the underlying condition with some resolving as the bowel inflammation improves. Others may require treatment aimed specifically at the extra-intestinal manifestation. In refractory cases the best evidence tends to be for steroids and anti-TNF agents although other biologics and immunosuppressants may also play a role.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IBD Unit, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

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