Advertisement

Group Parameters for Social Groups in Evacuation Scenarios

  • Cornelia von KrüchtenEmail author
  • Andreas Schadschneider
Conference paper

Abstract

Social groups are often an essential part of pedestrian crowds and influence their behaviour. In order to describe not only the influence of social groups in evacuations on entire pedestrian crowds, but also the dynamics of the groups themselves, we introduce a new set of quantitative group parameters. This set includes (1) the centre of mass of social groups with its velocity and orientation and (2) the shape of the groups. They are approximated as an ellipse of minimal area while containing all social group members. The main properties of this ellipse give some indication about the dynamics of the members, whereas the centre of mass quantities describe the dynamics of an entire social group. By combining both aspects it is possible to determine whether the members order along the group’s direction of movement. Additionally, the orientation of the social groups is determined via a gyration tensor approach. All quantities are determined from data of an experimental study on the influence of social groups on pedestrian evacuation dynamics. This study investigated several evacuation scenarios with groups and was performed in schools. Young adults performed evacuation runs including social groups of different sizes.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the teams of Forschungszentrum Jülich and University Wuppertal and the pupils and teachers of the participating schools. Financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (DFG) under grant SCHA 636/9-1 and Bonn-Cologne Graduate School of Physics and Astronomy (BCGS) is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Aveni, A.F.: The not-so-lonely crowd: friendship groups on collective behavior. Sociometry 40(1), 96–99 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ballerini, M., Cabibbo, N., Candelier, R., Cavagna, A., Cisbani, E., Giardina, I., Orlandi, A., Parisi, G., Procaccini, A., Viale, M., Zdravkovic, V.: Empirical investigation of starling flocks: a benchmark study in collective animal behavior. Anim. Behav. 76, 201–215 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bode, N.W.F.: The effect of social groups and gender on pedestrian behaviour immediately in front of bottlenecks. In: 8th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, pp. 92–99. University of Science and Technology of China Press, Hefei (2016)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bode, N.W.F., Holl, S., Mehner, W., Seyfried, A.: Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations. PLoS One 10, e0121227 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boltes, M., Seyfried, A., Steffen, B., Schadschneider, A.: Automatic extraction of pedestrian trajectories from video recordings. In: Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2008, pp. 43–54. Springer, Berlin (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guo, N., Jiang, R., Hu, M.B., Ding, J.X., Ding, Z.J.: Escaping in couples facilitates evacuation: experimental study and modeling. arXiv:1512.05120 (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Köster, G., Seitz, M.J., Treml, F., Hartmann, D., Klein, W.: On modelling the influence of group formations in a crowd. Contemp. Soc. Sci. 6, 397–414 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mauer, J.: Shapes and dynamics of blood cells in Poiseuille and shear flows. Ph.D. thesis, Universität zu Köln (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    Moussaïd, M., Perozo, N., Garnier, S., Helbing, D., Theraulaz, G.: The walking behavior of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics. PLoS One 5, e10047 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oberhagemann, D., Könnecke, R., Schneider, V.: Effect of social groups on crowd dynamics: empirical findings and numerical simulations. In: Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012, pp. 1251–1258. Springer, Berlin (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reuter, V., Berger, B.S., Köster, G., Seitz, M.J., Hartmann, D.: On modeling groups in crowds: empirical evidence and simulation results including large groups. In: Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012, pp. 835–845. Springer, Berlin (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    von Krüchten, C., Schadschneider, A.: Empirical study on social groups in pedestrian evacuation dynamics. Phys. A 475, 129–141 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xu, S., Duh, H.B.L.: A simulation of bonding effects and their impacts on pedestrian dynamics. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 11, 153–161 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cornelia von Krüchten
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andreas Schadschneider
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität zu KölnCologneGermany
  2. 2.Institut für PhysikdidaktikUniversität zu KölnCologneGermany

Personalised recommendations