Influence of Gender on the Fundamental Diagram and Gait Characteristics

  • Jiayue Wang
  • Maik Boltes
  • Armin Seyfried
  • Antoine Tordeux
  • Jun Zhang
  • Verena Ziemer
  • Wenguo Weng
Conference paper


The crowd structures in different public places or mass events are diverse. Areas with a large fraction of children, elderly pedestrians, or women, who are always referred to as vulnerable groups, will require higher standard for facility design and emergency evacuation. The fundamental diagram and gait characteristics, the basic properties for pedestrian traffic flow and human stepping locomotion, respectively, are essential for facility design and emergency evacuation. Therefore to investigate the influence of gender on the fundamental diagram and gait characteristics is one step to improve facility design and public safety. In this paper, results from experiments on single-file movements involving male and female youngsters are introduced. The fundamental diagram and gait characteristic parameters such as free-flow speed, stop space (minimal required distance to the preceding person), and free-flow space (minimal required distance to walk at free-flow speed) are analyzed considering the impacts of gender. It is found that males have significantly larger stop space and smaller free-flow space than females even if these differences are small. Besides, the gait characteristics between males and females are compared.



This study was supported by the German Research Foundation (Grant. No. SE 1789/4-1), the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 71725006), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71473147), the Joint Funds of Beijing Natural Science Foundation and Beijing Academy of Science and Technology (Grant No. L150010), and the China Scholarship Council (CSC). We are in particular grateful to Daniel Salden, Mohcine Chraibi, Bernhard Steffen, and Yang Zhou.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiayue Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maik Boltes
    • 3
  • Armin Seyfried
    • 3
    • 4
  • Antoine Tordeux
    • 3
  • Jun Zhang
    • 5
  • Verena Ziemer
    • 3
    • 4
  • Wenguo Weng
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering PhysicsTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Center for Capital Social SafetyPeople’s Public Security University of ChinaBeijingChina
  3. 3.Juelich Supercomputing CentreJuelich Research CentreJuelichGermany
  4. 4.Faculty of Architecture and Civil EngineeringUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina

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