Advertisement

Measurement and Analysis of Multidimensional Well-Being in Rwanda

  • Almas HeshmatiEmail author
  • Masoomeh Rashidghalam
  • Pia Nilsson
Chapter
Part of the Economic Studies in Inequality, Social Exclusion and Well-Being book series (EIAP)

Abstract

The well-being of families and their children is given high priority in development goals. Children’s well-being in Africa is important since the growing number of children is the greatest resource of this continent. Rwanda was one of the first countries that ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The country, despite its very low GDP per capita, also has one of the best child well-being indicators in Africa. In the recent past the country has also had two important achievements: protection of children by establishing the National Commission for Children and launching a Strategy for National Child Care Reform. The measures aim to protect children’s rights and integrate children into families that are supported to provide needed care to them. These achievements are largely the result of strong laws and policies many of which have been developed with support from UNICEF. Investments in children’s well-being will help in addressing many persistent difficulties that society may have to face in the future. What happens during the early years is of crucial importance for every child’s development. This period offers great opportunities, but children are also vulnerable to negative influences. The objective of this research is to estimate multidimensional well-being of children and their families in Rwanda. The aim is to compute an overall well-being index decomposed into its underlying main components. The households are ranked by the level of well-being and by various household and community characteristics. The results shed light on the state and changes in the well-being of children and their families in Rwanda indicating which provinces and districts offer relatively better conditions for them. This can serve as a model for public policies aimed at improving general well-being in the country.

Keywords

Well-being Multidimensional index Sustainable development Rwanda 

JEL Classification Codes

D13 D63 H53 I131 I138 J13 

References

  1. Akresh, R., Verwimp, P., & Bundervoet, T. (2011). Civil war, crop failure, and child stunting in Rwanda. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 59(4), 777–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alatartseva, E., & Barysheva, G. (2015). Well-being subjective and objective aspects. Precedia – Social and Behavioral Science, 166(7), 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt, C., & Tarp, F. (Eds). (2016). Measuring poverty and well-being in developing countries. WIDER Studies in Development Economics.Google Scholar
  4. Attree, P. (2004). Growing up in disadvantage. A systematic review of the qualitative evidence. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6), 679–689.Google Scholar
  5. Bargain, O., & Donni, O. (2007). A theory of child targeting, IZA Discussion Paper, 2669.Google Scholar
  6. Brandolini, A. (2007). On Synthetic Indices of Multidimensional Well-being: Health and Income inequalities in France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom, CHILD Working Paper 7.Google Scholar
  7. Ben-Arieh, A. (1997). International project on indicators of children’s well-being. Focus, 19(1), 61–65. Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Institute of Research on Poverty.Google Scholar
  8. Ben-Arieh, A., & Wintersberger, H. (1997). Monitoring and measuring the state of children. Beyond survival, 62. Vienna: European Centre for Social Welfare Policy Research.Google Scholar
  9. Beresford, B., Sloper, T., & Bradshaw, J. (2005). In J. Bradshaw & E. Mayhew (Eds.), Physical health. The well-being of children in the UK (2nd ed., pp. 65–107). London: Save the Children.Google Scholar
  10. Berger, L. M., Hill, J., & Waldvogel, J. (2005). Maternity leave, early maternal employment and child health and development in the US. Economic Journal, 115, 29–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradshaw, J. (2002). Child poverty and child outcomes. Children and Society, 16(2), 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bradshaw, J., Ditch, J., Holmes, H., & Vihiteford, P. (1993). A comparative study of child support in fifteen countries. Journal of European Social Policy, 3(4), 255–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradshaw, J., Hoelscher, P., & Richardson, D. (2006). Comparing child well-being in OECD countries: Concepts and methods, Innocenti Working Paper, 2006–3.Google Scholar
  14. Bradshaw, J., Hoelscher, P., & Richardson, D. (2007). An index of child well-being in the European Union. Social Indicators Research, 80(1), 133–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology, volume 1, theoretical models of human development (5th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Brooks, A. M., & Hanafin. S. (2005). Measuring child well-being. An inventory of key indicators, components and indicator selection criteria to support the development of a national set of child well-being indicators, Dublin, The National Children’s Office, Available at: http://www.nco.ie. Accessed 5 Nov 2005.
  17. Caserta, T. A., Pirttilä, M., & Punamäki, L. (2016). The association between psychosocial well-being and living environments: A case of orphans in Rwanda. Child and Family Social Work.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12308.
  18. Decancq, K., & Lugo, M. A. (2008). Setting weights in multidimensional indices of well-being. Working Paper, University of Oxford Department of Economics, May 2008.Google Scholar
  19. Duncan, G., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). Family poverty, welfare reform, and child development. Child Development, 71(1), 188–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gregg, P., Washbrook, E., Propper, C., & Burges, S. (2005). The effects of a mother’s Return to Work Decision on Child Development in the UK. Economic Journal, 115, 48–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grupp, H., & Mogee, M. E. (2004). Indicators of national science and technology policy: How robust are composite indicators? Research Policy, 33, 1373–1384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanafin, S., & Brooks, A. M. (2005). Report on the development of a national set of child well-being indicators in Ireland, Dublin. The National Children’s Office, Available at http://www.nco.ie. Accessed 5 Nov 2005.
  23. Heshmati, A., & Oh, J. E. (2006). Alternative composite Lisbon development strategy indices: A comparison of EU, USA, Japan and Korea. European Journal of Comparative Economics, 3(2), 133–170.Google Scholar
  24. Heshmati, A., Tausch, A., & Bajalan, C. S. J. (2008). Measurement and analysis of child well-being in middle and high income countries. European Journal of Comparative Economics, 5(2), 187–249.Google Scholar
  25. Hotelling, H. (1933). Analysis of a complex of statistical variables into principal components. Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 417–441. and 498–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jolliffe, I. T. (2002). Principal component analysis. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Jäntti, M., & Bradbury, B. (1999). Child poverty across industrialized nations. Journal of Population and Social Security. (Population),, 1, 385–410.Google Scholar
  28. Kakwani, N., & Silber, J. (2006). Quantitative approaches to multidimensional poverty measurement. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  29. Kakwani, N., & Silber, J. (2007). The many dimensions of poverty. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  30. Kamerman, S. B., Neuman, M., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Social policies, family types and child outcomes in selected OECD countries, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 6, Paris, OECDiLibrary.Google Scholar
  31. Kang, S. M. (2002). A sensitivity analysis of the Korean composite environmental index. Ecological Economics, 43, 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kayizzi-Mugerwa, S., Shimeles, A., Lusigi, A., & Moummi, A. (Eds.). (2017). Inclusive growth in Africa: Policies, practice, and lessons learnt. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Land, K. C. (2007). The foundation for child development: Child and Youth Well-being Index (CWI), 1975–2005, with Projections for 2006. Durham: Duke University. Available at: http://www.soc.duke.edu/~cwi/. Accessed 8 June 2017.
  34. Lippman, L. (2004). Indicators of child, family and community connections, office of the assistant secretary for planning and evaluation. US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  35. Maasoumi, E., & Hu, T. (2015). Weights and substitution degree in multidimensional well-being in China. Journal of Economic Studies, 42(1), 4–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. MacKerron, G. (2012). Happiness economics from 35,000 feet. Journal of Economic Surveys, 26(4), 705–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mayhew, E. (2005). The well-being of children in the UK (2nd ed., pp. 134–160). London: Save the Children.Google Scholar
  38. NISR. (2014). Available at: http://www.statistics.gov.rw/.
  39. Noorbakhsh, F. (1998). The human development index: Some technical issues and alternative indices. Journal of International Development, 10, 589–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pearson, K. (1901). On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space. Philosophical Magazine, 2, 559–572.Google Scholar
  41. Peters, H. E., & Mullis, N. C. (1997). The role of family income and sources of income on adolescent achievement. In G. Duncan & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 340–381). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  42. Qasim, M. (2017). Sustainability and well-being: A scientometric and bibliometric review of the literature. Journal of Economic Surveys, 31(4), 1035–1061.Google Scholar
  43. Roelen, K., Delap, E., Jones, C., & Chettri, H. K. (2017). Improving child well-being and care in Sub-Saharan Africa: The role of social protection. Children and Youth Services Review, 73, 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sachs, J. (2016). Keynote address on “Economics for the Common Good” at the conference “Subjective well-being over the life course: Evidence and policy implications” held at the London School of Economics and Political Science on 12–13 December 2016. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZO-V4Niz-U. Accessed 8 June 2017.
  45. Santos Pais, M. (1999). A human rights conceptual framework for UNICEF. Innocenti Essay, 9. Florence, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.Google Scholar
  46. Sarriera, J. C., Casas, F., Bedin, L., Abs, D., Strelhow, M. R., Gross-Manos, D., & Giger, J. (2015). Material resources and children’s subjective well-being in eight countries. Child Indicators Research, 8(1), 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sen, A. (1985). Commodities and capabilities. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  48. Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Sen, A. (2000). Social exclusion: Concept, application, and scrutiny. Social Development Papers, Office of Environment and Social Development.Google Scholar
  50. Senik, C. (2010). Income distribution and well-being: What can we learn from subjective data? Journal of Economic Surveys, 19(1), 43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sobolewski, J. M., & Amato, P. R. (2005). Economic hardship in the family of origin and children’s psychological well-being in adulthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ssewamala, F. M., Han, C. K., Neilands, T. B., Ismayilova, L., & Sperber, E. (2010). Effect of economic assets on sexual risk-taking intentions among orphaned adolescents in Uganda. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 483–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stevens, K., Dickson, M., & Polad, M. (2005). Focus on families. Reinforcing the importance of family. families with dependent children – Successful outcomes project. Report on literature review and focus groups, Wellington, Families Commission. Available at http://www.familiescommission.govt.nz/download/focus-on-families.pdf. Accessed 7 June 2017.
  54. Stiglitz, J. E., Sen, A., & Fitttousi, J. P. (2009). Report by the commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress, 2009. Retrieved on June 10, 2017 at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/118025/118123/Fitoussi+Commission+report
  55. Truyts, T. (2010). Social status in economic theory. Journal of Economic Surveys, 24(1), 137–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ridge, T. (2002). Childhood poverty and social exclusion, from a child’s perspective. Bristol: The Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. UNICEF. (2007). Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries. Report Card 2006–07, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.Google Scholar
  58. UNICEF. (2013). Key statistics on child survival, protection and development data & analytics. Division of Policy and Strategy.Google Scholar
  59. UNICEF (2014). Key statistics on child survival, protection and development data & analytics. Division of Policy and Strategy.Google Scholar
  60. United Nations. (2015). World urbanization prospects (the 2014 revision). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.Google Scholar
  61. Xiao, S., Lu, Z., & Xu, L. (2017). Multivariate sensitivity analysis based on the direction of eigen space through principal component analysis. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 165, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Almas Heshmati
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masoomeh Rashidghalam
    • 2
  • Pia Nilsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Jönköping UniversityJönköpingSweden
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural EconomicsUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations