Advertisement

Date Palm Waste: An Efficient Source for Production of Glucose and Lactic Acid

  • Muhammad Tauseef Azam
  • Asif AhmadEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 34)

Abstract

Plant based by-products are naturally available in large quantities and they can be exploited as cheap and feasible substrate for their biological transformation into valuable products. Date palm is a good example from plant source having a great value for its by-products owing to presence of cellulosic material that can be converted into valuable products like glucose and lactic acid as an option to reduce environmental pollution. Production of glucose from cellulosic date palm waste can be achieved with the help of cellulose enzyme from selective microorganisms. Similarly, date palm cellulosic material can also be converted into lactic acid with the help of lactic acid bacteria through fermentation process. Conditions may be optimized for the production of glucose and lactic acid during fermentation process. Lactic acid production is decreased if the substrate concentration is high initially in the fermentation experiment while maximum production is achieved by increasing the enzyme concentration in the experiment. The desirable yield of glucose can be achieved at 50 °C and pH of 5.0. Adopting a two-step hydrolysis process can increase the glucose production by 94.88% in 24 h process. Lactic acid yield can be achieved maximum at temperature 40–45 °C and pH 6. These results are promising and these suggest that yield of sugar and lactic acid from date palm waste is practical and it may be employed as a best practice to minimize the environmental pollution by using date palm cellulosic by-products as an inexpensive source. This chapter envisage the suitability of date palm waste as inexpensive cellulosic source for obtaining commercially valuable products i.e. glucose and lactic acid.

Keywords

Date palm Biological waste Cellulosic waste Cellulase enzyme Glucose Lactic acid Lactic acid bacteria Enzymatic fermentation 

References

  1. Agbor VB, Cicek N, Sparling R, Berlin A, Levin DB (2011) Biomass pretreatment: fundamentals toward application. Biotechnol Adv 29(6):675–685.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.05.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agoudjil B, Benchabane A, Boudenne A, Ibos L, Fois M (2011) Renewable materials to reduce building heat loss: characterization of date palm wood. Energy Build 43(2–3):491–497.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Åkerberg C, Hofvendahl K, Zacchi G, Hahn-Hägerdal B (1998) Modelling the influence of pH, temperature, glucose and lactic acid concentrations on the kinetics of lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis ATCC 19435 in whole-wheat flour. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 49(6):682–690.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530051232 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Farsi* MA, Lee CY (2008) Nutritional and functional properties of dates: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48(10):877–887.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390701724264 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alrumman SA (2016) Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid. Braz J Microbiol 47(1):110–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2015.11.015 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Shahib W, Marshall RJ (2003) The fruit of the date palm: its possible use as the best food for the future? Int J Food Sci Nutr 54(4):247–259.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480120091982 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Altaf M, Naveena BJ, Reddy G (2005) Screening of inexpensive nitrogen sources for production of L (+) lactic acid from starch by amylolytic Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 in single step fermentation. Food Technol Biotechnol 43(3):235–239. URI: https://hrcak.srce.hr/110538 Google Scholar
  8. Amrane A, Prigent Y (1998) Lactic acid production rates during the different growth phases of Lactobacillus helveticus cultivated on whey supplemented with yeast extract. Biotechnol Lett 20(4):379–383.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005331430943 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berry AR, Franco CM, Zhang W, Middelberg AP (1999) Growth and lactic acid production in batch culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a defined medium. Biotechnol Lett 21(2):163–167.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/501029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bozoglu TF, Ray B (2013) Lactic acid bacteria: current advances in metabolism, genetics and applications. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-61462-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bretón-Toral A, Trejo-Estrada T, McDonald A (2017) Lactic acid production from potato peel waste, spent coffee grounds and almond shells with undefined mixed cultures isolated from coffee mucilage from Coatepec Mexico. Ferment Technol 6(139):2.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-7972.1000139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burgos-Rubio CN, Okos MR, Wankat PC (2000) Kinetic study of the conversion of different substrates to lactic acid using Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Biotechnol Prog 16(3):305–314.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bp000022p CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bustos G, Moldes AB, Cruz JM, Domínguez JM (2004) Formulation of low-cost fermentative media for lactic acid production with Lactobacillus rhamnosus using vinification lees as nutrients. J Agric Food Chem 52(4):801–808.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030429k CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Büyükkileci AO, Harsa S (2004) Batch production of L (+) lactic acid from whey by Lactobacillus casei (NRRL B-441). J Chem Technol Biotechnol 79(9):1036–1040.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carocho M, Morales P, Ferreira IC (2015) Natural food additives: Quo vadis. Trends Food Sci Technol 45(2):284–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2015.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carrasco F, Pagès P, Gámez-Pérez J, Santana O, Maspoch ML (2010) Processing of poly (lactic acid): characterization of chemical structure, thermal stability and mechanical properties. Polym Degrad Stab 95(2):116–125.  https://doi.org/10.1366/13-07176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carroll A, Somerville C (2009) Cellulosic biofuels. Annu Rev Plant Biol 60:165–182.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.043008.092125 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chafran LS, Campos JM, Santos JS, Sales MJA, Dias SC, Dias JA (2016) Synthesis of poly (lactic acid) by heterogeneous acid catalysis from d, l-lactic acid. J Polym Res 23(6):107.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm101302t CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chandrasekaran M, Bahkali AH (2013) Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology – review. Saudi J Biol Sci 20(2):105–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.12.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Chang D-E, Jung H-C, Rhee J-S, Pan J-G (1999) Homofermentative production of d-orl-lactate in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli RR1. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(4):1384–1389.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2859-12-57 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Chao CT, Krueger RR (2007) The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): overview of biology, uses, and cultivation. Hortscience 42(5):1077–1082.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/368/1/012009DOI CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Datta R, Henry M (2006) Lactic acid: recent advances in products, processes and technologies—a review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81(7):1119–1129.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Datta R, Tsai S-P, Bonsignore P, Moon S-H, Frank JR (1995) Technological and economic potential of poly (lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives. FEMS Microbiol Rev 16(2–3):221–231.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1995.tb00168.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de Oliveira RA, Komesu A, Rossell CEV, Maciel Filho R (2018) Challenges and opportunities in lactic acid bioprocess design – from economic to production aspects. Biochem Eng J 133:219–239.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2018.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dien B, Cotta M, Jeffries T (2003) Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63(3):258–266.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-003-1444-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ding S, Tan T (2006) L-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation using different fed-batch feeding strategies. Process Biochem 41(6):1451–1454.  https://doi.org/10.1002/biot.200600099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eş I, Khaneghah AM, Barba FJ, Saraiva JA, Sant’Ana AS, Hashemi SMB (2018) Recent advancements in lactic acid production-a review. Food Res Int 107:763–770.  https://doi.org/10.1018/10408398.2018.1477730 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Friedman MR, Gaden EL (1970) Growth and acid production by Lactobacillus (L.) delbrueckii in a dialysis culture system. Biotechnol Bioeng 12(6):961–974.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.260120608 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fu W, Mathews A (1999) Lactic acid production from lactose by Lactobacillus plantarum: kinetic model and effects of pH, substrate, and oxygen. Biochem Eng J 3(3):163–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-703X(99)00014-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garde A, Jonsson G, Schmidt AS, Ahring BK (2002) Lactic acid production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus brevis. Bioresour Technol 81(3):217–223.  https://doi.org/10.17221/461/2017-CJFS CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Göksungur Y, Güvenç U (1997) Batch and continuous production of lactic acid from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii IFO 3202. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 69(4):399–404.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199708)69:4<399::AID-JCTB728>3.0.CO;2-Q CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goyal H, Seal D, Saxena R (2008) Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: a review. Renew Sust Energy Rev 12(2):504–517.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2006.07.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamada J, Hashim I, Sharif F (2002) Preliminary analysis and potential uses of date pits in foods. Food Chem 76(2):135–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00253-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harding K, Harrison S (2016) Generic flowsheet model for early inventory estimates of industrial microbial processes. II. Downstream processing. South Afr J Chem Eng 22:23–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2017.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Himmel ME, Xu Q, Luo Y, S-Y D, Lamed R, Bayer EA (2010) Microbial enzyme systems for biomass conversion: emerging paradigms. Biofuels 1(2):323–334.  https://doi.org/10.4155/bfs.09.25 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hofvendahl K, Hahn-Hägerdal B (1997) L-lactic acid production from whole wheat flour hydrolysate using strains of Lactobacilli and Lactococci. Enzym Microb Technol 20(4):301–307.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(97)83489-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hofvendahl K, Hahn–Hägerdal B (2000) Factors affecting the fermentative lactic acid production from renewable resources1. Enzym Microb Technol 26(2–4):87–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(99)00155-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hujanen M, Linko S, Linko Y-Y, Leisola M (2001) Optimisation of media and cultivation conditions for L (+)(S)-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56(1–2):126–130.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530000501 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Idris A, Suzana W (2006) Effect of sodium alginate concentration, bead diameter, initial pH and temperature on lactic acid production from pineapple waste using immobilized Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Process Biochem 41(5):1117–1123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2005.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. John RP, Nampoothiri KM, Pandey A (2007) Fermentative production of lactic acid from biomass: an overview on process developments and future perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74(3):524–534.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-006-0779-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kailasapathy K (2013) Commercial sources of probiotic strains and their validated and potential health benefits-a review. Int J Ferment Foods 2(1):1.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00578 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Keller AK, Gerhardt P (1975) Continuous lactic acid fermentation of whey to produce a ruminant feed supplement high in crude protein. Biotechnol Bioeng 17(7):997–1018.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.260170705 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Khalid S, Ahmad A, Kaleem M (2017a) Antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of Ajwa date and their effect on lipo-protein profile. Funct Foods Health Dis 7(6):396–410.  https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2015.50826 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khalid S, Khalid N, Khan RS, Ahmed H, Ahmad A (2017b) A review on chemistry and pharmacology of Ajwa date fruit and pit. Trends Food Sci Technol 63:60–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kimura Y, Misato I, Kojima H, Kanai Y, Seki Y, Aburai K, Kikuchi Y (2016) Glucose production method and glucose produced by said method. Google Patents. https://patents.google.com/patent/US20160090613A1/en
  46. Kotzamanidis C, Roukas T, Skaracis G (2002) Optimization of lactic acid production from beet molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIMB 8130. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 18(5):441–448.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015523126741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kulozik U, Wilde J (1999) Rapid lactic acid production at high cell concentrations in whey ultrafiltrate by Lactobacillus helveticus. Enzym Microb Technol 24(5–6):297–302.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-0229(98)00122-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lim L-T, Auras R, Rubino M (2008) Processing technologies for poly (lactic acid). Prog Polym Sci 33(8):820–852.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Linko Y-Y, Javanainen P (1996) Simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification, and lactic acid fermentation on barley starch. Enzym Microb Technol 19(2):118–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(95)00189-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Martinez FAC, Balciunas EM, Salgado JM, González JMD, Converti A, de Souza Oliveira RP (2013) Lactic acid properties, applications and production: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 30(1):70–83.  https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120379 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Martinez A, Rodríguez-Alegría ME, Fernandes MC, Gosset G, Vargas-Tah A (2017) Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for lactic acid production from renewable resources. In: Engineering of microorganisms for the production of chemicals and biofuels from renewable resources. Springer, Cham, pp 125–145.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51729-2_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Michelz Beitel S, Fontes Coelho L, Sass DC, Contiero J (2017) Environmentally friendly production of D (−) lactic acid by Sporolactobacillus nakayamae: investigation of fermentation parameters and fed-batch strategies. Int J Microbiol 2017:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4851612 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Miura S, Arimura T, Itoda N, Dwiarti L, Feng JB, Bin CH, Okabe M (2004) Production of L-lactic acid from corncob. J Biosci Bioeng 97(3):153–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(04)70184-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mohanty JN, Das PK, Nanda S, Nayak P, Pradhan P (2016) Comparative analysis of crude and pure lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus fermentum and its inhibitory effects on spoilage bacteria. Pharm Innov 3(11, Part A).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4851612
  55. Moldes AB, Alonso JL, Parajo JC (2001) Strategies to improve the bioconversion of processed wood into lactic acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 76(3):279–284.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Naik SN, Goud VV, Rout PK, Dalai AK (2010) Production of first and second generation biofuels: a comprehensive review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(2):578–597.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nampoothiri KM, Nair NR, John RP (2010) An overview of the recent developments in polylactide (PLA) research. Bioresour Technol 101(22):8493–8501.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nancib A, Nancib N, Boubendir A, Boudrant J (2015) The use of date waste for lactic acid production by a fed-batch culture using Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. Braz J Microbiol 46(3):893–902.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-838246320131067 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Nielsen J, Nikolajsen K, Benthin S, Villadsen J (1990) Application of flow-injection analysis in the on-line monitoring of sugars, lactic acid, protein and biomass during lactic acid fermentations. Anal Chim Acta 237:165–175.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016699701903 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Oh H, Wee Y-J, Yun J-S, Ryu H-W (2003) Lactic acid production through cell-recycle repeated-batch bioreactor. In: Biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Springer, Cham, pp 603–613.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0057-4_50 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pailin B (2010) Development of lactic acid production process from cassava by using lactic acid bacteria.  https://doi.org/10.18178/IJCEA
  62. Pandey A (2003) Solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng J 13(2–3):81–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-703X(02)00121-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Raman N (2010) Production of Glucose from Banana Stem Waste Using Strain A. UMP. ballistic model-based soft sensor to monitor lactic acid bacteria fermentations. Biochem Eng J 135:49–60. URI: http://umpir.ump.edu.my/id/eprint/3251 Google Scholar
  64. Richter K, Berthold C (1998) Biotechnological conversion of sugar and starchy crops into lactic acid. J Agric Eng Res 71(2):181–191.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1998.0314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rogers P, Chen J-S, Zidwick MJ (2006) Organic acid and solvent production. In: The prokaryotes. Springer, New York, pp 511–755.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1998.0314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roukas T, Kotzekidou P (1998) Lactic acid production from deproteinized whey by mixed cultures of free and coimmobilized Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis cells using fedbatch culture. Enzyme Microb Tech 22(3):199–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(97)00167-1
  67. Salas-Papayanopolos H, Morales-Cepeda AB, Sanchez S, Lafleur PG, Gomez I (2017) Synergistic effect of silver nanoparticle content on the optical and thermomechanical properties of poly (l-lactic acid)/glycerol triacetate blends. Polymer Bulletin 74(12):4799–4814. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-017-1992-4
  68. San-Martín M, Pazos C, Coca J (1992) Reactive extraction of lactic acid with alamine 336 in the presence of salts and lactose. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 54(1):1.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1998.03146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Saxena S (2015) Microbial enzymes and their industrial applications. In: Applied microbiology. Springer, pp 121–154.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2259-0_9
  70. Schepers AW, Thibault J, Lacroix C (2002) Lactobacillus helveticus growth and lactic acid production during pH-controlled batch cultures in whey permeate/yeast extract medium. Part I: Multiple factor kinetic analysis. Enzyme Microb Technol 30(2):176–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(01)00465-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Scully SM, Iloranta P, Myllymaki P, Orlygsson J (2015) Branched-chain alcohol formation by thermophilic bacteria within the genera of Thermoanaerobacter and Caldanaerobacter. Extremophiles 19(4):809–818.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/410492 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Shukla V, Zhou S, Yomano L, Shanmugam K, Preston J, Ingram L (2004) Production of d (−)-lactate from sucrose and molasses. Biotechnol Lett 26(9):689–693.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BILE.0000024088.36803.4e CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Södergård A, Stolt M (2002) Properties of lactic acid based polymers and their correlation with composition. Prog Polym Sci 27(6):1123–1163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6700(02)00012-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Spann R, Roca C, Kold D, Lantz AE, Gernaey KV, Sin G (2018) A probabilistic model-based soft sensor to monitor lactic acid bacteria fermentations. Biochem Eng J 135:49–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2018.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sreenath HK, Moldes AB, Koegel RG, Straub RJ (2001) Lactic acid production from agriculture residues. Biotechnol Lett 23(3):179–184.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005651117831 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Venkatesh K (1997) Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to lactic acid. Bioresour Technol 62(3):91–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(97)00122-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vijayakumar J, Aravindan R, Viruthagiri T (2008) Recent trends in the production, purification and application of lactic acid. Chem Biochem Eng Q 22(2):2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2014.03.00245-264 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wang L, Zhao B, Liu B, Yu B, Ma C, Su F, Hua D, Li Q, Ma Y, Xu P (2010) Efficient production of L-lactic acid from corncob molasses, a waste by-product in xylitol production, by a newly isolated xylose utilizing Bacillus sp. strain. Bioresour Technol 101(20):7908–7915.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.031 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang Y, Tashiro Y, Sonomoto K (2015) Fermentative production of lactic acid from renewable materials: recent achievements, prospects, and limits. J Biosci Bioeng 119(1):10–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.06.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Wasewar KL, Yawalkar AA, Moulijn JA, Pangarkar VG (2004) Fermentation of glucose to lactic acid coupled with reactive extraction: a review. Ind Eng Chem Res 43(19):5969–5982.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie049963n CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wee Y-J, Yun J-S, Park D-H, Ryu H-W (2004) Biotechnological production of L (+)-lactic acid from wood hydrolyzate by batch fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis. Biotechnol Lett 26(1):71–74.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BILE.0000009464.23026.e CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Wee Y-J, Yun J-S, Lee YY, Zeng A-P, Ryu H-W (2005) Recovery of lactic acid by repeated batch electrodialysis and lactic acid production using electrodialysis wastewater. J Biosci Bioeng 99(2):104–108.  https://doi.org/10.1263/jbb.99.104 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Wee Y-J, Kim J-N, Ryu H-W (2006) Biotechnological production of lactic acid and its recent applications. Food Technol Biotechnol 44(2):163–172.  https://doi.org/10.12691/wjoc-1-2-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Xiaodong W, Xuan G, Rakshit S (1997) Direct fermentative production of lactic acid on cassava and other starch substrates. Biotechnol Lett 19(9):841–843.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018321200591 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yadav KS, Chuttani K, Mishra AK, Sawant KK (2011) Effect of size on the biodistribution and blood clearance of etoposide-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 65(2):131–139. doi:tapraid4/zj5-pstj/zj5-pstj/zj500211/zj52228d11gPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Yáñez R, Moldes AB, Alonso JL, Parajó JC (2003) Production of D (−)-lactic acid from cellulose by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens. Biotechnol Lett 25(14):1161–1164.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-012-1023-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Yáñez R, Alonso JL, Parajó JC (2005) D-Lactic acid production from waste cardboard. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 80(1):76–84D.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1160OI
  88. Yun J-S, Wee Y-J, Kim J-N, Ryu H-W (2004) Fermentative production of dl-lactic acid from amylase-treated rice and wheat brans hydrolyzate by a novel lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. Biotechnol Lett 26(20):1613–1616.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BILE.0000045826.97010.82 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Zamzam S, Nafiea ER, Al-Hadhromi HA (2018) Ali FA Utilization of Date Pits in the Production of Functional Chocolates. In: Qatar foundation annual research conference proceedings, 2018, vol 2. HBKU Press, Qatar, p HBPD415.  https://doi.org/10.5339/qfarc.2018.HBPD348

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali ShahArid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan

Personalised recommendations