Different Extraction Methods, Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Date Seed Oil

  • Jawhar FakhfakhEmail author
  • Sahar Ben-Youssef
  • Mu. Naushad
  • Noureddine Allouche
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 34)


Vegetable oils are naturally found in a wide range of plants. Each plant provided separate and distinctive oil. However, only few of these plants are exploited for their economic importance. Vegetable oils have a major role in human nutrition. They provide a high energy source and contain distinctive fatty acids which are essential for health and these are not developed by the human body. The major source of vegetable oils is the seeds of annual plants and oil-bearing trees. Nowadays and with the word increase demand on vegetable oils, oil-processing industries searches for new exploitable sources. Recycling agricultural wastes constitutes one of the pertinent alternatives for the production of edible oils. Date palm seeds are promising source for this purpose.

The aim of this chapter is to present up–to–date data on the different extraction techniques used for getting Date seed oils (DSO) from different sources and leading to different yields.

These extraction techniques included (i) cold pressure; (ii) conventional solid-liquid extraction like maceration, Bligh-Dyer and Soxhlet extractions; and (iii) non-conventional extractions such as microwave, ultrasound and supercritical fluid extractions using either petroleum solvents like hexane and petroleum ether or MeTHF as green solvent for the first two techniques and CO2 for the last one. Cold pressure, supercritical fluid and green solvent extractions afforded the safer oils while Soxhlet extractions give the better yields.

In order to evaluate the compositional quality as well as the nutritional and sensory properties of DSOs, several physicochemical properties like refractive index, color perception, melting point, viscosity, iodine value, saponification value, and peroxide value were assessed.

Date seeds contain between 3 and 16.5% oil. DSO contains different types of fatty acids (FA) from which the most abundant were oleic (C18:1 ω9; 25.89–55.10%), lauric (C12:0; 8.4–45.88%), linoleic (C18:2 ω6; 2.47–19.23%), palmitic (C16:0; 8.3–16.22%) and myristic (C14:0; 0.04–18.76%) acids of which oleic acid is the predominant. Lauric and oleic acids are the main saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of DSO respectively. Other FAs exist in trace level. DSO has low acidity (0.15–0.90%) and low peroxide value (3.16–6.91 meq O2/kg) allowing its possible use in food applications. DSO could resist thermal treatments for long period (30–40 h long) and could be utilized in frying and cooking. Additionally, DSO contains tocophereols and tocotrieneols which together exist in an average of 70.75 mg/g oil. Phytosterols exist also in minor amounts in DSO and constitute most of the unsaponifiable matter of which β-sitosterol was found to be the predominant (76%) followed by Campesterol (29.90%) and Δ5-Avenasterol (29.56%). 96–99% of DSO is triacylglycerids composed mainly by LaMM + LaLaP with 18.9% of relative composition followed by LaMP + MMM (15.31%), LaOO + PLL+ MPL (12.86%) and LaPO (11.33%).


Date palm seed oil Oil extraction Soxhlet Maceration Microwave Ultrasound Green extraction Supercritical fluid Chemical composition Physicochemical properties 


  1. Abbas KA, Mohamed A, Abdulamir AS, Abas HA (2008) A review on supercritical fluid extraction as new analytical method. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 4(4):345–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdalla RSM, Albasheer AA, El-Hussein ARM, Gadkariem EA (2012) Physico-chemical characteristics of date seed oil grown in Sudan. Am J Appl Sci 9(7):993–999. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Farsi M, Alasalvar C, Al-Abid M, Al-Shoaily K, Al-Amry M, Al-Rawahy F (2007) Compositional and functional characteristics of dates, syrups and their by-products. Food Chem 104:943–947. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Hooti S, Sidhu JS, Qabazard H (1998) Chemical composition of seeds date fruit cultivars of United Arab Emirates. J Food Sci Technol 35:44–46Google Scholar
  5. Ali-Mohamed AY, Khamis ASH (2004) Mineral ion content of the seeds of six cultivars of Bahraini date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). J Agric Food Chem 52(21):6522–6525. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ali MA, Al-Hattab TA, Al-Hydary IA (2015) Extraction of date palm seed oil (phoenix dactylifera) by soxhlet apparatus. Int J Adv Eng Technol 8(3):261–271Google Scholar
  7. Al-Juhaimi F, Ozcan MM, Adiamo OQ, Alsawmahi ON, Ghafoor K, Babiker EE (2018) Effect of date varieties on physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition, tocopherol contents, and phenolic compounds of some date seed and oils. J Food Process Preserv 42(7):1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Shahib W, Marshall RJ (2003) Fatty acid content of the seeds from 14 varieties of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Int J Food Sci Technol 38(6):709–712. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Sumri A, Al-Siyabi N, Al-Saadi R, Al-Rasbi S, Al-Dallal A (2016) Study on the extraction of date palm seed oil using Soxhlet apparatus. Int J Sci Eng Res 7(12):1266–1270Google Scholar
  10. Aris NA, Norhuda I, Adeib IS (2013) Extraction of Phoenix Dactylifera (Mariami) seeds oil using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). Int J Chem Environ Eng 4(1):32–37Google Scholar
  11. Arslan R, Ozcan MM (2010) Study the effect of sun, oven and microwave drying on quality of onion slices. LWT – Food Sci Technol 43(7):1121–1127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Azeem MW, Hanif MA, Al-Sabahi JN, Khan AA, Naz S, Ijaz A (2016) Production of biodiesel from low priced, renewable and abundant date seed oil. Renew Energy 86:124–132. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Azodi RA, Hojjatoleslamy M, Shariati MA (2014) Comparison of chemical properties of kabkab and shahani palm kernel. AJSR 1(1):17–19Google Scholar
  14. Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S (2006) Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem 99(1):191–203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Basuny AMM, Al–Marzooq MA (2011) Production of mayonnaise from date pit oil. Food Nutr Sci 2:938–943. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Battershill JM, Illing HPA, Shillaker RO, Smith AM (1987) n-Hexane. In: Health & safety executive toxicity review, vol 18. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service National Institutes of Health, London, pp 7–248Google Scholar
  17. Ben-Youssef S, Fakhfakh J, Breil C, Abert-Vian M, Chemat F, Allouche N (2017) Green extraction procedures of lipids from Tunisian date palm seeds. Ind Crop Prod 108(1):520–525. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bernardo-Gil MG, Lopes IMG, Casquilho M, Ribeiro MA, Esquível MM, José E (2006) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of acorn oil. J Supercrit Fluids 40(3):344–348. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernardo-Gil MG, Ricardo R, Luísa BR, Luís CD, Francisco G, Paula E (2011) Supercritical extraction of carob kibbles (Ceratonia siliqua L.). J Supercrit Fluids 59:36–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Besbes S, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Drira NE, Attia H (2004a) Date seeds: chemical composition and characteristic profiles of the lipid fraction. Food Chem 84:577–584. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Besbes S, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Lognay G, Derira N, Attia H (2004b) Quality characteristics and oxidative stability of date seed oil during storage. Food Sci Technol Int 10:333–338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Besbes S, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Lognay G, Drira N, Attia H (2005) Heating effects on some quality characteristics of date seed oil. Food Chem 91:469–476. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Biglar M, Khanavi M, Hajimahmoodi M, Hassani S, Moghaddam G, Sadeghi N, Oveisi MR (2012) Tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of different Iranian date seed oils. Iran J Pharm Res 11(3):873–878PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37(8):911–917Google Scholar
  25. Bouhlali ET, Alem C, Ennassir J, Benlyas M, Mbark AN, Zegzouti YF (2017) Phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity of three date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seeds varieties grown in the South East Morocco. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 16:350–357. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boukouada M, Yousfi M (2009) Phytochemical study of date seeds lipids of three fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L) produced in Ouargla region. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences et Sciences de l’Ingénieur 1(3):66–74Google Scholar
  27. Boukouada M, Ghiaba Z, Gourine N, Bombarda I, Saidi M, Yousfi M (2014) Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seed oil of two Algerian date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera). Nat Prod Commun 9(12):1777–1780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Breil C, Meullemiestre A, Vian M, Chemat F (2016) Bio-based solvents for green extraction of lipids from oleaginous yeast biomass for sustainable aviation biofuel. Molecules 21:1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bruckert F, Casavant T, Satre M (2001) Aromatic di–alanine repeats (AdAR) are structural motifs characteristic of the soluble N–ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) family. Proteins 45(1):40–46. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chaira N, Ferchichi A, Mrabet A, Sghairoun M (2007) Chemical composition of the flesh and the pit of date palm fruit and radical scavenging activity of their extracts. Pak J Biol Sci 10(13):2202–2207. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chemat F (2014) Alternative solvents for natural products extraction. Ph.D. thesis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  32. Chemat F, Tomao V, Virot M (2008) Ultrasound-assisted extraction in food analysis. In: Handbook of food analysis instruments by Semih Ötles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 85–103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chemat F, Zill-e-Huma, Khan MK (2011) Applications of ultrasound in food technology: processing, preservation and extraction. Ultrason Sonochem 18(4):813–835. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Choo WS, Birch J, Dufour JP (2007) Physico-chemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed flaxseed oils. J Food Compos Anal 20:202–211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Codex Alimentarius Commission Codex Stan 19–1981. Accessed 12 July 2018
  36. Czaplicki S, Ogradowska D, Derewiaka D, Tanska M, Zadernowski R (2011) Bioactive compounds in unsaponifiable fraction of oils from unconventional sources. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 113(12):1456–1464. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. El-Shurafa MY, Ahmed HS, Abou-Naji SE (1982) Organic and inorganic constituent of dates palm pit (seeds). J Date Palm 2:275–284Google Scholar
  38. Fakourelis N, Lee EC, Min DB (1987) Effects of chlorophyll and β-carotene on the oxidation stability of olive oil. J Food Sci 52(1):234–235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fatnassi S, Nehdi IE, Zarrouk H (2009) Chemical composition and profile characteristics of Osage orange Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider seed and seed oil. Ind Crop Prod 29(1):1–8Google Scholar
  40. Fine F, Vian MA, Tixier A-SF, Carre P, Pages X, Chemat F (2013) Les agro-solvants pour l’extraction des huiles végétales issues de graines oléagineuses. OCL 20(5):1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Frankel EN (2005) Lipid oxidation, 2nd edn. The Oily Press, BridgwaterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gecgel U, Demirci AS, Dulger GC, Gecgel U, Tasan M, Arici M, Ay O (2015) Some physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and antimicrobial characteristics of different cold-pressed oils. Riv Ital Sostanze Gr 92(3):187–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gharby S, Harhar H, Guillaume D, Roudani A, Boulbaroud S, Ibrahimi M, Ahmad M, Sultana S, Ben Hadda T, Chafchaouni-Moussaoui I, Charrouf Z (2015) Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa l. Seed oil produced in Morocco. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 14(2):172–177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gray JI (1978) Measurement of lipid oxidation. J Am Oil Chem Soc 55(6):539–546. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gulaboski R, Mirceski V, Mitrev S (2013) Development of a rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine total antioxidative capacity of edible oils. Food Chem 138(1):116–121. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Habib MH, Ibrahim WH (2009) Nutritional quality evaluation of eighteen date pit varieties. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60(S1):99–111. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Habib MH, Kamal H, Ibrahim WH, Dhaheri ASA (2013) Carotenoids, fat soluble vitamins and fatty acid profiles of 18 varieties of date seed oil. Ind Crop Prod 42:567–572. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Handa SS, Khanuja SPS, Longo G, Rakesh DD (2008) Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants, 1st edn. United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology, TriesteGoogle Scholar
  49. Herchi W, Kallel H, Boukhchina S (2014) Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of Tunisian date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) oil as affected by different extraction methods. Food Sci Technol Campinas 34(3):464–470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Herrero M, Mendiola JA, Cifuentes A, Ibáñez E (2010) Supercritical fluid extraction: recent advances and applications. J Chromatogr A 1217(16):2495–2511. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hussein AS, Alhadrami GA, Khalil YH (1998) The use of dates and date pits in broiler starter and finisher diets. Bioresour Technol 66(3):219–223Google Scholar
  52. ISO 659–1988 (1988) International organization for standardization (ISO). ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  53. Jadhav AJ, Holkar CR, Goswami AD, Pandit AB, Pinjari DV (2016) Acoustic cavitation as a novel approach for extraction of oil from waste date seeds. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4(8):4256–4263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jamil F, Al-Muhtaseb AH, Al-Haj L, Al-Hinai MA, Hellier P, Rashid U (2016) Optimization of oil extraction from waste “date pits” for biodiesel production. Energy Convers Manag 117:264–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jensen WB (2007) The origin of the Soxhlet extractor. J Chem Educ 84(12):1913–1914. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kazemi M, Dadkhah A (2012) Antioxidant activity of date seed oils of fifteen varieties from Iran. Orient J Chem 28(3):1201–1205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kyçyk O, Aguilera MP, Gaforio JJ, Jiménez A (2016) Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the world collection olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba. J Sci Food Agric 96(12):4143–4150. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lercker G, Rodriguez-Estrada MT (2000) Chromatographic analysis of unsaponifiable compounds of olive oils and fat-containing food. J Chromatogr A 881(1–2):105–129. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Liang T, Liao S (1992) Inhibition of steroid 5x–reductase by specific aliphatic unsaturated fatty acids. Biochem J 285(2):557–562. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Lutterodt H, Luther M, Slavin M, Yin JJ, Parry J, Gao JM, Yu L (2010) Fatty acid profile, thymoquinone content, oxidative stability, and antioxidant properties of cold-pressed black cuminseed oils. LWT – Food Sci Technol 43(9):1409–1413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lutterodt H, Slavin M, Whent M, Turner E, Yu L (2011) Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of selected cold-pressed grape seed oils and flours. Food Chem 128(2):391–399. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Maestro-Durán R, Borja-Padilla R (1993) Actividad antioxidante de esteroles y ácidos orgánicos naturales. Grasas Aceites 44(2):208–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maskan M (2000) Microwave/air and microwave finish drying of banana. J Food Eng 44(2):71–78Google Scholar
  64. Mason TJ (1998) Chapter 6: Power ultrasound in food processing – the way forward. In: Ultrasound in food processing. Blackie Academic and Professional, Thomson Science, London, pp 105–126Google Scholar
  65. Matthaus B, Brühl L (2003) Quality of cold-pressed edible rapeseed oil in Germany. Nahrung/Food 47(6):413–419. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Minguez-Mosquera MI, Rejano-Navarro L, Gandulrojas B, Sanchez Gomez AH, Garrido-Fernandez J (1991) Color-pigment correlation in virgin olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 68(2):332–336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nederal S, Skevin D, Kraljic K, Obranovic M, Papesa S, Bataljaku A (2012) Chemical composition and oxidative stability of roasted and cold pressed pumpkin seed oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 89(9):1763–1770. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nehdi I (2011) Characteristics, chemical composition, and utilisation of Albizia julibrissin seed oil. Ind Crop Prod 33(1):30–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nehdi I, Omri S, Khalil MI, Al-Resayes SI (2010) Characteristics and chemical composition of date palm (Phoenix canariensis) seeds and seed oil. Ind Crop Prod 32:360–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nehdi IA, Sbihi H, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI (2013) Evaluation and characterization of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil. Food Chem 136(2):348–353. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nehdi IA, Mokbli S, Sbihi H, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI (2014) Chamaerops humilis L. var. argentea André date palm seed oil: a potential dietetic plant product. J Food Sci 79(4):C534–C539. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Tan CP, Rashid U, Al-Resayes SI (2018) Chemical composition of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed oil from six Saudi Arabian cultivars. J Food Sci 83(3):624–630. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Norhuda I, Jusoff K (2009) Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as a clean technology for palm kernel oil extraction. J Biochem Technol 1(3):75–78Google Scholar
  74. O’Brien RD (2004) Fats and oils: formulating and processing for applications, 2nd edn. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton/London/New York/Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  75. Oomah BD, Ladet S, Godfrey DV, Liang J, Girard B (2000) Characteristics of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) seed oil. Food Chem 69(2):187–193. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Paré JRJ, Bélanger JMR (1997) Instrumental methods in food analysis. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  77. Parker TD, Adams DA, Zhou K, Harris M, Yu L (2003) Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of cold-pressed edible seed oils. J Food Sci 68(4):1240–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Parry J, Su L, Moore J, Cheng Z, Luther M, Rao JN, Wang JY, Yu L (2006) Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours. J Agric Food Chem 54:3773–3778. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Perrin JL (1992) Les composés mineurs et les antioxgènes naturels de l’olive et de son huile. Revue Française des Corps Gras 39:25–32Google Scholar
  80. Pinto LF, Ndiaye PM, Ramos LP, Corazza ML (2011) Phase equilibrium data of the system CO2 + glycerol + methanol at high pressures. J Supercrit Fluids 59:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Raziq S, Anwar F, Mahmood Z, Shahid SA, Nadeem R (2012) Characterization of seed oils from different varieties of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)] from Pakistan. Grasas Aceites 63(4):365–372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reddy MK, Rani HD, Deepika CN, Samrawat S, Akshara V, Rajesh K (2017) Study on physico-chemical properties of oil and powder of date palm seeds (Phoenix dactylifera). Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6(12):486–492. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Saafi EB, Trigui M, Thabet R, Hammami M, Achour L (2008) Common date palm in Tunisia: chemical composition of pulp and pits. Int J Food Sci Technol 43:2033–2037. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shahidi F, Wanasundra UN (1997) Methods of measuring oxidative rancidity in fats and oils. In: Food lipids: chemistry, nutrition, and biotechnology, 4th edn. Akoh CC, New York, pp 377–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sicaire AG, Vian M, Fine F, Joffre F, Carré P, Tostain S, Chemat F (2015) Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing. Int J Mol Sci 16:8430–8453. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Siger A, Nogala-Kalucka M, Lampart-Szczapa E (2008) The content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in cold-pressed plant oils. J Food Lipids 15(2):137–149. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Suresh S, Guizani N, Al-Ruzeiki M, Al-Hadhrami A, Al-Dohani H, Al-Kindi I, Rahman MS (2013) Thermal characteristics, chemical composition and polyphenol contents of date-pits powder. J Food Eng 119(3):668–679Google Scholar
  88. Teh SS, Birch J (2013) Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canoal seed oils. J Food Compos Anal 30(1):26–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thakur N, Arya V (2014) Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts of psidium leaves. Middle-East J Sci Res 19(11):1421–1424. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tiwari BK (2015) Ultrasound: a clean, green extraction technology. Trends Anal Chem 71:100–109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vandepopuliere JM, Al-Yousef Y, Lyons JM (1995) Dates and date pits as ingredients in broiler starting and coturnix quail breeder diets. Poult Sci 74(7):1134–1142. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Virot M, Tomao V, Colnagui G, Visinoni F, Chemat F (2007) New microwave-integrated Soxhlet extraction an advantageous tool for the extraction of lipids from food products. J Chromatogr A 1174:138–144. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Virot M, Tomao V, Ginies C, Visinoni F, Chemat F (2008) Microwave-integrated extraction of total fats and oils. J Chromatogr A 1196–1197:57–64. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Yousuf RG, Winterburn JB (2017) Waste date seed oil extract as an alternative feedstock for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis. Biochem Eng J 127:68–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yu L, Haley S, Perret J, Harris M (2002) Antioxidant properties of extracts from hard winter wheat. Food Chem 78(4):457–461. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jawhar Fakhfakh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sahar Ben-Youssef
    • 1
  • Mu. Naushad
    • 2
  • Noureddine Allouche
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Organic Chemistry LR17ES08 (Natural Substances Team), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences of SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations