Advertisement

Valorization of Waste Date Seeds for Green Carbon Catalysts and Biodiesel Synthesis

  • Ala’a H. Al-MuhtasebEmail author
  • Farrukh Jamil
  • Lamya Al Haj
  • Eyas Mahmoud
  • Mohamed Becherif
  • Umer Rashid
  • Sikander Rafiq
  • A. E. Atabani
  • Gopalakrishnan Kumar
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 34)

Abstract

The decreasing availability of fossil fuels and environmental issues associated with their use has placed a greater emphasis on biofuels production as a competent alternative source to produce energy in the current era. Production of biofuels from plant-based oil has a good prospect as a competent alternative to fossil fuels. The concept of utilizing waste date pits for biofuels production is promising due to its abundant availability in Oman. Present work reports, a better way to valorize the waste biomass (Date pits) is adopted in order to get environment friendly catalyst which will be effectively used for producing biodiesel. The produced carbon material was impregnated with KOH to enhance the efficiency and analyzed by SEM, XRD, EDX and BET. The production of biodiesel was analyzed by parametric studies involving following process parameters which include process temperature, reaction time, type of catalysts along with methanol to oil ratio. The maximum yield obtained was 91.6% for following parametric value such as temperature 65 °C, for C3 (6 wt% KOH on carbon) catalyst when 9:1 methanol to oil ratio was used. Moreover, the verification for quality of produced biodiesel was done by comparison with standards recognized internationally (ASTM and EN). The produced biodiesel possessed a cetane number of 60.31, density 881 kg/m3, flash point 141 °C, viscosity was measured to be 4.24 mm2/s, low temperature properties which includes cloud point, cold filter plugging point and pour point were 3.9 °C, −0.62 °C, −1.4 °C respectively thus these properties identify the quality of produced biodiesel. Thus, all properties were within the ranges provided standards of ASTM and EN. Thus, it can be concluded that Date pits biomass is potential alternative source for catalyst synthesis along with biodiesel.

Keywords

Waste biomass, carbon catalyst Biodiesel Energy source 

References

  1. Abas N, Kalair A, Khan N (2015) Review of fossil fuels and future energy technologies. Futures 69(0):31–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2015.03.003 Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Jrai AM, Jamil F, Al-Muhtaseb A a H, Baawain M, Al-Haj L, Al-Hinai M, Al-Abri M, Rafiq S (2017) Valorization of waste date pits biomass for biodiesel production in presence of green carbon catalyst. Energy Convers Manag 135:236–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.083 Google Scholar
  3. Amani MA, Davoudi MS, Tahvildari K, Nabavi SM, Davoudi MS (2013) Biodiesel production from Phoenix dactylifera as a new feedstock. Ind Crop Prod 43(0):40–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.06.024 Google Scholar
  4. Aransiola EF, Ojumu TV, Oyekola OO, Madzimbamuto TF, Ikhu-Omoregbe DIO (2014) A review of current technology for biodiesel production: state of the art. Biomass Bioenergy 61(0):276–297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.11.014 Google Scholar
  5. Archibald D (2014) The Twilight of Energy Abundance. SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition. Adelaide, Australia, Society of Petroleum EngineersGoogle Scholar
  6. Azeem MW, Hanif MA, Al-Sabahi JN, Khan AA, Naz S, Ijaz A (2016) Production of biodiesel from low priced, renewable and abundant date seed oil. Renew Energy 86:124–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.08.006 Google Scholar
  7. Bae C, Kim J (2017) Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Proc Combust Inst.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2016.09.009
  8. Banković-Ilić IB, Stamenković OS, Veljković VB (2012) Biodiesel production from non-edible plant oils. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16(6):3621–3647.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.002 Google Scholar
  9. Baroi C, Dalai AK (2015) Process sustainability of biodiesel production process from green seed canola oil using homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts. Fuel Process Technol 133:105–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.01.004 Google Scholar
  10. Bart JCJ, Palmeri N, Cavallaro S (2010a) 1 – Biodiesel as a renewable energy source. Biodiesel Science and Technology, Woodhead Publishing pp 1–49Google Scholar
  11. Bart JCJ, Palmeri N, Cavallaro S (2010b) 12 – Analytical methods and standards for quality assurance in biodiesel production. In: Biodiesel science and technology. Woodhead Publishing, Oxford, pp 514–570Google Scholar
  12. Capellán-Pérez I, Mediavilla M, de Castro C, Carpintero Ó, Miguel LJ (2014) Fossil fuel depletion and socio-economic scenarios: an integrated approach. Energy 77(0):641–666.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.09.063 Google Scholar
  13. Chen K-T, Wang J-X, Dai Y-M, Wang P-H, Liou C-Y, Nien C-W, Wu J-S, Chen C-C (2013) Rice husk ash as a catalyst precursor for biodiesel production. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 44(4):622–629.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2013.01.006 Google Scholar
  14. Cherubini F (2010) The biorefinery concept: using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals. Energy Convers Manag 51(7):1412–1421.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.01.015 Google Scholar
  15. Chouhan APS, Sarma AK (2011) Modern heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production: a comprehensive review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(9):4378–4399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.112 Google Scholar
  16. Demirbas A (2005) Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Prog Energy Combust Sci 31(5–6):466–487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2005.09.001 Google Scholar
  17. Demirbas A (2007) Progress and recent trends in biofuels. Prog Energy Combust Sci 33(1):1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2006.06.001 Google Scholar
  18. Demirbas A (2008) Comparison of transesterification methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats. Energy Convers Manag 49(1):125–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2007.05.002 Google Scholar
  19. Dewulf J, Van Langenhove H, Van De Velde B (2005) Exergy-based efficiency and renewability assessment of biofuel production. Environ Sci Technol 39(10):3878–3882.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es048721b Google Scholar
  20. Di Gianfrancesco A (2017) 1 – The fossil fuel power plants technology. In: Materials for Ultra-Supercritical and Advanced Ultra-supercritical Power Plants. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, MA, pp 1–49Google Scholar
  21. El Hag MG, Al-Merza MA, Al Salti B (2002) Growth in the Sultanate of Oman of small ruminants given date byproducts-urea multinutrient blocks. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 15(5):671–674Google Scholar
  22. Gerhard K, Robert OD, Marvin OB (1997) Biodiesel: the use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels. Fuels and chemicals from biomass, vol 666. Am Chem Soc, pp 172–208Google Scholar
  23. Grammelis P, Margaritis N, Karampinis E (2016) 2 – Solid fuel types for energy generation: Coal and fossil carbon-derivative solid fuels A2 – Oakey, John. In: Fuel Flexible Energy Generation. Woodhead Publishing, Boston, pp 29–58Google Scholar
  24. Gurunathan B, Ravi A (2015) Process optimization and kinetics of biodiesel production from neem oil using copper doped zinc oxide heterogeneous nanocatalyst. Bioresour Technol 190:424–428.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.101 Google Scholar
  25. Jamil F, Al-Haj L, Al-Muhtaseb Ala’a H, Al-Hinai Mohab A, Baawain M, Rashid U, Ahmad Mohammad NM (2018) Current scenario of catalysts for biodiesel production: a critical review. Rev Chem Eng 34:267–297Google Scholar
  26. Jitputti J, Kitiyanan B, Rangsunvigit P, Bunyakiat K, Attanatho L, Jenvanitpanjakul P (2006) Transesterification of crude palm kernel oil and crude coconut oil by different solid catalysts. Chem Eng J 116(1):61–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2005.09.025 Google Scholar
  27. Klass DL (2006) Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals. Academic Press An Imprint of ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  28. Knothe G (2010) 1 – Introduction. In: The Biodiesel Handbook, 2nd edn. AOCS Press, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  29. Liang X, Gao S, Wu H, Yang J (2009a) Highly efficient procedure for the synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil. Fuel Process Technol 90(5):701–704.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2008.12.012 Google Scholar
  30. Liang X, Gao S, Yang J, He M (2009b) Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil. Renew Energy 34(10):2215–2217.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.01.009 Google Scholar
  31. Lin L, Cunshan Z, Vittayapadung S, Xiangqian S, Mingdong D (2011) Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel. Appl Energy 88(4):1020–1031.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.09.029 Google Scholar
  32. Maczulak AE (2009) Renewable energy: sources and methods (Green Technology), Facts on FileGoogle Scholar
  33. Manickavasagan A, Essa MM, Sukumar E (2012) Dates production, processing, food and medical values. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Meher LC, Vidya Sagar D, Naik SN (2006) Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 10(3):248–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2004.09.002 Google Scholar
  35. Mofijur M, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Atabani AE, Shahabuddin M, Palash SM, Hazrat MA (2013) Effect of biodiesel from various feedstocks on combustion characteristics, engine durability and materials compatibility: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 28(0):441–455.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.07.051 Google Scholar
  36. Mohr SH, Wang J, Ellem G, Ward J, Giurco D (2015) Projection of world fossil fuels by country. Fuel 141(0):120–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.10.030 Google Scholar
  37. Panwar NL, Kaushik SC, Kothari S (2011) Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(3):1513–1524.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.037 Google Scholar
  38. Ptasinski KJ (2016) Efficiency of biomass energy. WileyGoogle Scholar
  39. Ringsmuth AK, Landsberg MJ, Hankamer B (2016) Can photosynthesis enable a global transition from fossil fuels to solar fuels, to mitigate climate change and fuel-supply limitations? Renew Sust Energ Rev 62:134–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.04.016 Google Scholar
  40. Rosillo-Calle F, Woods J (2012) The biomass assessment handbook: bioenergy for a sustainable environment. Earth ScanGoogle Scholar
  41. Shafiee S, Topal E (2009) When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished? Energy Policy 37(1):181–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.08.016 Google Scholar
  42. Tiwari GN, Mishra RK (2011) Advanced renewable energy sources. RSCGoogle Scholar
  43. Toka A, Iakovou E, Vlachos D, Tsolakis N, Grigoriadou A-L (2014) Managing the diffusion of biomass in the residential energy sector: an illustrative real-world case study. Appl Energy 129(0):56–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.04.078 Google Scholar
  44. Utama NA, Fathoni AM, Kristianto MA, McLellan BC (2014) The end of fossil fuel era: supply-demand measures through energy efficiency. Procedia Environ Sci 20(0):40–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2014.03.007 Google Scholar
  45. Vertes AA, Qureshi N, Blaschek HP, Yukawa H (2010) Biomass to biofuels. Wiley, U.S.Google Scholar
  46. Wan Omar WNN, Amin NAS (2011) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil over alkaline modified zirconia catalyst. Fuel Process Technol 92(12):2397–2405.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.08.009 Google Scholar
  47. Yan S, Lu H, Liang B (2007) Supported CaO catalysts used in the transesterification of rapeseed oil for the purpose of biodiesel production. Energy Fuel 22(1):646–651.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef070105o Google Scholar
  48. Yusuf NNAN, Kamarudin SK, Yaakub Z (2011) Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production. Energy Convers Manag 52(7):2741–2751.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.12.004 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb
    • 1
    Email author
  • Farrukh Jamil
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lamya Al Haj
    • 3
  • Eyas Mahmoud
    • 4
  • Mohamed Becherif
    • 5
  • Umer Rashid
    • 6
  • Sikander Rafiq
    • 2
  • A. E. Atabani
    • 7
  • Gopalakrishnan Kumar
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of EngineeringSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringCOMSATS University IslamabadLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of Biology, College of ScienceSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  4. 4.Department of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringUnited Arab Emirates UniversityAl-AinUAE
  5. 5.Department of Energy, FCLab, FR CNRS 3539Bourgogne Franche-Comte University/UTBMBelfortFrance
  6. 6.Institute of Advanced TechnologyUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  7. 7.Energy Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringErciyes 20 UniversityKayseriTurkey
  8. 8.Institute of Chemistry, Bioscience and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of StavangerStavangerNorway

Personalised recommendations