Advertisement

Nutritional and Therapeutic Applications of Date Palm

  • Prabu PeriyathambiEmail author
  • Hemalatha Thiagarajan
  • Suganthan Veerachamy
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 34)

Abstract

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae family) is an ancient crop of Southwest Asia, widely known for its nutritional and therapeutic values. Date fruits are rich in carbohydrates, dietary fibres, proteins, minerals, vitamins etc. The therapeutic potential of date fruit is well documented in Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) and Middle Eastern folklore. Date fruits are highly nourishing and possess immense health benefits, which is highly attributed to the presence of phytochemicals viz., polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins etc. This chapter speaks about the nutritional and pharmacological effects of date fruit. Date fruit is a real gift to mankind, because it’s a unique combination of a natural product being tastier, inexpensive encompassing high nutritional and medicinal properties.

Keywords

Date palm Phoenix dactylifera Fruit Nutritional Antioxidant Anti-inflammation Anticancer Antimicrobial Neuroprotection Hepatoprotection 

References

  1. AAl-Sayyed HF, Takruri HR, Shomaf MS (2014) The effect of date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on the hormone 17-β-estradiol in 7,12-dimethylbenz (α) anthracene induced mammary cancer in rats. Med J Nutrition Metab 7(1):5–10.  https://doi.org/10.3233/MNM-140001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abuharfeil NM, El Sukhon S, Msameh Y, Sallal AJ (1999) Effect of Date Fruits, Phoenix Dactyliferia L., on the Hemolytic Activity of Streptolysin O. Pharm Biol 37(5):335–339.  https://doi.org/10.1076/phbi.37.5.335.6051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed IA, Ahemed AWK, Robinson RK (1995) Chemical composition of date varieties as influenced by the stage of ripening. Food Chem 54:305–309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(95)00051-J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Farsi MA, Lee CY (2008) Nutritional and functional properties of dates: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48:877–887.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390701724264 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Farsi M, Alasalvar C, Morris A, Baron M, Shahidi F (2005) Compositional and sensory characteristics of three native sundried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman. J Agric Food Chem 53:7586–7591.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf050578y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ali A, Al-Kindi YS, Al-Said F (2009) Chemical composition and glycemic index of three varieties of Omani dates. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60(S4):51–62.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480802389094 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Kuran O, Al-Mehaisen L, Bawadi H, Beitawi S, Amarin Z (2011) The effect of late pregnancy consumption of date fruit on labour and delivery. J Obstet Gynaecol 31:29–31.  https://doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2010.522267 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allaith AAA (2008) Antioxidant activity of Bahreini date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit of various cultivars. Int J Food Sci Tech 43:1033–1040.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01558.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Almana HA, Mahmoud RM (1994) Date-palm seeds as an alternative source of dietary fibre in Saudi bread. Ecol Food Nutr 32:261–270.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03670244.1994.9991406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Okbi SY, Mohamed DA (2012) Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis. Grasas Aceites 63:394–402.  https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.130811 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman H, Ali BH, Mousa HM, El-Mougy SA (2005) The ameliorative effect of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 98:313–317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.023
  12. Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman H, Mousa HM, Ali BH, El-Mougy SA (2008) Nephroprotective action of Phoenix dactylifera. In gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Pharm Biol 46(4):227–230.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13880200701739322 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Al-Shahib W, Marshall RJ (2003) The fruit of date palm: it’s possible uses as best food for the future. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54(4):247–259.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480120091982 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Al-Taher AY (2008) Possible antidiarrheal effect of date-palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) aqueous extracts in rats. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences) 9:1429–1435Google Scholar
  15. Ashraf Z, Hamidi-Esfahani Z (2011) Date and Date Processing: A Review. Food Rev Int 27(2):101–133.  https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2010.535231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Attia H, Al-Rasheed N, Mohamad R, Al-Rasheed N, Al-Amin M (2016) The antifibrotic and fibrolytic properties of date fruit extract via modulation of genotoxicity, tissue-inhibitor of metalloproteinases and nuclear factor- kappa B pathway in a rat model of hepatotoxicity. BMC Complement Altern Med 16(1):414.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1388-2 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bahmanpour S, Talaei T, Vojdani Z, Panjehshahin MR, Poostpasand A, Zareei S, Ghaeminia M (2006) Therapeutic effect of Phoenix dactylifera pollen on sperm parameters and reproductive system of adult male rats. Iran J Med Sci 31:8–12. http://ijms.sums.ac.ir/index. php/IJMS/article/view/2180/666 Google Scholar
  18. Baliga MS, Baliga BRV, Kandathil SM, Bhat HP, Vayalil PK (2011) A review of the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Food Res Int 44:1812–1822.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baltaci BB, Uygur R, Caglar V, Aktas C, Aydin M, Ozen OA (2016) Protective effects of quercetin against arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats. Andrologia 48(10):1202–1213.  https://doi.org/10.1111/and.12561 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Barreveld WH (1993). Date-Palm Products. Bulletin No 101. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0681e/t0681e 00.htm
  21. Bentrad N, Gaceb-Terrak R, Benmalek Y, Rahmania F (2017a) Studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of bioactive molecules from date palm (phoenix dactylifera L.) Pollens and seeds. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 4(3):242–256.  https://doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v14i3.26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bentrad N, Gaceb-Terrak R, Rahmania F (2017b) Identification and evaluation of antibacterial agents present in lipophilic fractions isolated from sub-products of Phoenix dactilyfera. Nat Prod Res 31(21):2544–2548.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1314282 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Biglari F, Abbas FM, Alkarkhi FM, Azahar ME (2008) Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of various date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits from Iran. Food Chem 107:1636–1641.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boudries H, Kefalas P, Hornero-Mendez D (2007) Carotenoid composition of Algerian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera) at different edible maturation stages. Food Chem 101:1372–1377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bouhlali ET, Bammou M, Sellam K, Benlyas M, Alem C, Filali-Zegzouti Y (2016) Evaluation of antioxidant, antihemolytic and antibacterial potential of six Moroccan date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties. J King Saud Univ Sci 28(2):136–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2016.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bouhlali ET, Ramchoun M, Alem C, Ghafoor K, Ennassir J, Zegzouti YF (2017a) Functional composition and antioxidant activities of eight Moroccan date fruit varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.). J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 16(3):257–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2015.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bouhlali ET, El Hilaly J, Ennassir J, Benlyas M, Alem C, Amarouch M-Y, Filali-Zegzouti Y (2017b) Anti-inflammatory properties and phenolic profile of six Moroccan date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties. J King Saud Univ Sci 30(4):519–526.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2017.08.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Boulenouar N, Marouf A, Cheriti A (2011) Antifungal activity and phytochemical screening of extracts from Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars. Nat Prod Res 25(20):1999–2002.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.536765 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ceballos-Picot I, Witko-Sarsat V, Merad-Boudia M, Nguyen AT, Thévenin M, Jaudon MC, Zingraff J, Verger C, Jingers P, Latscha BD (1996) Glutathione antioxidant system as a marker of oxidative stress in chronic renal failure. Free Radic Biol Med 21:845–853.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(96)00233-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cummings JH, Bingham S, Heaton KW, Eastwood MA (1992) Fecal weight, colon cancer risk, and dietary intake of non-starch polysaccharides (dietary fibre). Gastroenterology 103:1783–1789. https://www.gastrojournal.org/article/0016-5085(92)91435-7/abstract CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dehghanian F, Kalantaripour TP, Esmaeilpour K, Elyasi L, Oloumi H, Pour FM, Asadi-Shekaari M (2017) Date seed extract ameliorates β-amyloid-induced impairments in hippocampus of male rats. Biomed Pharmacother 89:221–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.02.037 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eid N, Enani S, Walton G, Corona G, Costabile A, Gibson G, Rowland I, Spencer JP (2014) The impact of date palm fruits and their component polyphenols, on gut microbial ecology, bacterial metabolites and colon cancer cell proliferation. J Nutr Sci 3:e46.  https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2014.16 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. El Arem A, Ghrairi F, Lahouar L, Thouri A, Behija Saafi E, Ayed A, Zekri M, Ferjani H, Haouas Z, Zakhama A, Achour L (2014) Hepatoprotective activity of date fruit extracts against dichloroacetic acid-induced liver damage in rats. J Funct Foods 9:119–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2014.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. El Arem A, Lahouar L, Saafi EB, Thouri A, Ghrairi F, Houas Z, Neffati F, Achour L (2017) Dichloroacetic acid-induced testicular toxicity in male rats and the protective effect of date fruit extract. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 18:17.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40360-017-0127-8
  35. Elsadek B, El-Sayed ES, Mansour A, Elazab A (2017) Abrogation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats by Ajwa date fruit extract through ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. Pak J Pharm Sci 30(6):2183–2191. http://www.pjps.pk/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/30/6/Paper%2017.pdf PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fennema OR (1996) Food Chemistry, 3rd edn. Dekker M, New York, pp 365–339. https://www.zuj.edu.jo/download/food-chemistry-3rd-ed-o-fennema-9ed-marcel-dekker-1996-ww-pdf/ Google Scholar
  37. Garcia OB, Castillo J (2008) Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: new findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity. J Agric Food Chem 56:6185–6205.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8006568 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ghnimi S, Umer S, Karim A, Kamal-Eldina A (2017) Date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.): An underutilized food seeking industrial valorization. NFS Journal 6:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2016.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goor A (1967) The history of the date through the ages in the holy land. Econ Bot 21(4):320–340.  https://doi.org/10.2307/4252895 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hart D, Scott KJ (1995) Development and evaluation of HPLC method for the analysis of carotenoids in fruits, and the measurement of the carotenoid content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in UK. Food Chem 54:101–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(95)92669-B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hasan M, Mohieldein A (2016) In vivo evaluation of anti diabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-oxidative activities of saudi date seed extract on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Clin Diagn Res 10(3):FF06–FF12.  https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/16879.7419 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Hazzouri KM, Flowers JM, Visser HJ, Khierallah HS, Rosas U, Pham GM, Meyer RS, Johansen CK, Fresquez ZA, Masmoudi K, Haider N, El Kadri N, Idaghdour Y, Malek JA, Thirkhill D, Markhand GS, Krueger RR, Zaid A, Purugganan MD (2015) Whole genome re-sequencing of date palms yields insights into diversification of a fruit tree crop. Nat Commun 6:8824.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9824 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Hussein AS, Alhadrami GA, Khali YH (1998) The use of dates and date pits in broiler starter and finisher diets. Bioresour Technol 66:219–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(98)00054-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ishruda O John FK (2005) The anticancer activity of polysaccharide prepared from Libyan dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Carbohydr Polym 59:531–535.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ismail B, Haffar I, Baalbaki R, Mechref Y, Henry J (2006) Physico-chemical characteristics and total quality of five date varieties grown in United Arab Emirates. Int Food Sci and Technol 41:919–926.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01143.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kalantaripour T, Asadi-Shekaari M, Basiri M, Najar AG (2012) Cerebroprotective effect of date seed extract (Phoenix dactylifera) on focal cerebral ischemia in male rats. J Biol Sci 12:180–185.  https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2012.180.185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kchaou W, Abbès F, Mansour RB, Blecker C, Attia H, Besbes S (2016) Phenolic profile, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of second grade date extract from Tunisian cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Food Chem 194:1048–1055.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.120 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kehili HE, Zerizer S, Beladjila KA, Kabouche Z (2016) Anti-inflammatory effect of Algerian date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Agric Immunol 27:820–829.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540105.2016.1183597 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Khadem N, Sharaphy A, Latifnejad R, Hammod N, Ibrahimzadeh S (2007) Comparing the efficacy of dates and oxytocin in the management of postpartum hemorrhage. Shiraz E-Medical Journal 8(2):64–71. https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0820/4871/ files/MEDJOULS -_Comparing the Efficacy of Dates and_Oxytocin in_the_Management of_Postpartum Hemorrhage.pdf Google Scholar
  50. Khan F, Khan TJ, Kalamegam G, Pushparaj PN, Chaudhary A, Abuzenadah A, Kumosani T, Barbour E, Al-Qahtani M (2017) Anti-cancer effects of Ajwa dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 17:418.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1926-6 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Kordi M, Aghaei MF, Tara F, Nemati M, Taghi SM (2014) The Effect of Late Pregnancy Consumption of Date Fruit on Cervical Ripening in Nulliparous Women. J Midwifery Womens Health 2(3):150–156.  https://doi.org/10.22038/JMRH.2014.2772 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Hennekens CH, Manson JAA (2000) Prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake and risk of coronary heart diseases in U.S women. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1455–1461.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1455 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mahran GH, Abdel-Wahab SM, Attia AM (1976) A phytochemical study of date palm pollen. Planta Med 29:171–175.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1097648 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Makki M, Hamooda A, Al-Abri A (1998) The Date Palm, Culture, Operation and Maintenance. Modern Color Publishers, Muscat. https://www.crcpress.com/Dates-Production-Processing-Food-and-Medicinal-Values/Manickavasagan-Essa-Sukumar/p/book /9781439849453 Google Scholar
  55. Mansouri A, Embarek G, Kokkalou E, Kefalas P (2005) Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera.). Food Chem 89:411–420.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marlett JA, Mc Burney MI, Slavin J (2002) Position of the American Diabetic Association: Health implications of dietary fiber. J Agric Food Chem 102:993–1000.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Michael HN, Salib JY, Eskander EF (2013) Bioactivity of Diosmetin Glycosides Isolated from the Epicarp of Date Fruits, Phoenix dactylifera, on the Biochemical Profile of Alloxan Diabetic Male Rats. Phytother Res 27:699–704.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.4777 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller CJ, Dunn EV, Hashim IB (2003) The glycaemic index of dates and date/yoghurt mixed meals. Are dates ‘the candy that grows on trees’? Eur J Clin Nut 57:427–430.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nadkarni KM (1976) Indian Matria Medica, vol 1. Bombay Popular Prakashan, Mumbai. https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/21887031 Google Scholar
  60. Pujari RR, Vyawahare NS, Kagathara VG (2011) Evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) against bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 49:627–633. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ 1d2b/a9458ea3aa4a23b469929331f22c7bf38e6e.pdf PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ranilla LG, Kwon YI, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM, Shetty K (2008) Antidiabetes and antihypertension potential of commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners using in vitro models. J Med Food 11:337–348.  https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2007.689 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Razali N, Mohd Nahwari SH, Sulaiman S, Hassan J (2017) Date fruit consumption at term: Effect on length of gestation, labour and delivery. J Obstet Gynaecol 37(5):595–600.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2017.1283304 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Saafi EB, Louedi M, Elfeki A, Zakhama A, Najjar MF, Hammami M, Achour L (2011) Protective effect of date palm fruit extract (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on dimethoate induced-oxidative stress in rat liver. Exp Toxicol Pathol 63(5):433–441.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2010.03.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Sallal AK, Rim J, Amr ZS, Disi AM (1997) Inhibition of haemolytic activity of snake and scorpion venom by date extract. Biomed Lett 55(217):51–56. http://jglobal.jst.go.jp/en/public/200902115410640922 Google Scholar
  65. Samad MA, Hashim SH, Simarani K, Yaacob JS (2016) Antibacterial properties and effects of fruit chilling and extract storage on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of four date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivars. Molecules 21(4):419.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040419 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Shahidi F, Naczk M (2004) Phenolics in Foods and Nutraceuticals. CRC Press, Boca Rotan. https://www.crcpress.com/Phenolics-in-Food-and-Nutraceuticals/Shahidi-Naczk/p/book/9781587161384 Google Scholar
  67. Shanmugapriya M, Patwardhan K (2012) Uses of date palm in Ayurveda. In: Manickavasagan A, Essa MM, Sukumar E (eds) Dates: production, processing, food, and medicinal values. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 377–385. https://www.crcpress.com/Dates-Production-Processing-Food-and-Medicinal-Values/Manickavasagan-Essa-Sukumar/p/book/9781439849453 Google Scholar
  68. Sheikh BY, Zihad SMNK, Sifat N, Uddin SJ, Shilpi JA, Hamdi OA, Hossain H, Rouf R, Jahan IA (2016) Comparative study of neuropharmacological, analgesic properties and phenolic profile of Ajwah, Safawy and Sukkari cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Orient Pharm Exp Med 16(3):175–183.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-016-0239-5 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Subash S, Essa MM, Braidy N, Awlad-Thani K, Vaishnav R, Al-Adawi S, Al-Asmi A, Guillemin GJ (2015) Diet rich in date palm fruits improves memory, learning and reduces beta amyloid in transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Ayurveda Integr Med 6(2):111–120.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.159073 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Taleb H, Maddocks SE, Morris RK, Kanekanian AD (2016) Chemical characterisation and the anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic and antibacterial properties of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.). J Ethnopharmacol 194:457–468.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.032 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Tang ZX, Shi LE, Aleid SM (2013) Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products. J Sci Food Agric 93:2351–2361.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6154 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Thouri A, Chahdoura H, El Arem A, Omri Hichri A, Ben Hassin R, Achour L (2017) Effect of solvents extraction on phytochemical components and biological activities of Tunisian date seeds (var. Korkobbi and Arechti). BMC Complement Altern Med 17:248.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1751-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Vayalil PK (2002) Antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae). J Agric Food Chem 50:610–617.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010716t CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Vinson JA, Zubik L, Bose P, Samman N, Proch J (2005) Dried fruits: excellent in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidants. J Am Coll Nutr 24:44–50.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2005.10719442 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhang CR, Aldosari SA, Vidyasagar PS, Nair KM, Nair MG (2013) Antioxidant and antiinflammatory assays confirm bioactive compounds in Ajwa Date fruit. J Agric Food Chem 61:5834–5840.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf401371v CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Zangeneh F, Moezi L, Amir Zargar A (2009) The effect of palm date, fig and olive fruits regimen on weight, pain threshold and memory in mice. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 25:149–158Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prabu Periyathambi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hemalatha Thiagarajan
    • 2
  • Suganthan Veerachamy
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for NanobiotechnologyVellore Institute of Technology (VIT)VelloreIndia
  2. 2.Biological Materials LaboratoryCSIR-Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI)ChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Department for Sensors and Biomedical Technology, School of Electronics Engineering [SENSE]Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT)VelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations