Osteoarticular infection in children often poses a diagnostic challenge, so much greater as the younger is the patient. Although joint aspiration remains indispensable for definitive diagnosis of septic arthritis (as well as tissue biopsy and/or culture data for tuberculous arthritis), imaging is a valuable tool in the workup of these patients. No matter the etiologic agent, early and accurate definition of the infectious origin of the arthritis is paramount in order to minimize structural damage and avoid complications and long-term sequelae. This chapter addresses the articular component of peripheral musculoskeletal infections, namely, pyogenic and tuberculous arthritis, together with the imaging features of transient synovitis of the hip, one of the most important differential diagnoses to consider in daily practice. Spinal infection is part of the subject matter of Chap. 12.
Imaging Joints Radiology Children Adolescents Pediatrics Radiographs X-rays Ultrasonography Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging Infectious arthritis Pyogenic arthritis Bacterial arthritis Tuberculous arthritis Transient synovitis of the hip Infection Arthritis Synovitis Tenosynovitis
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Agarwal A, Aggarwal AN. Bone and joint infections in children: septic arthritis. Indian J Pediatr. 2016;83:825–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold JC, Bradley JS. Osteoarticular infections in children. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2015;29:557–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bancroft LW. MR imaging of infectious processes of the knee. Radiol Clin North Am. 2007;45:931–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buchmann RF, Jaramillo D. Imaging of articular disorders in children. Radiol Clin North Am. 2004;42:151–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chiappini E, Mastrolia MV, Galli L, De Martino M, Lazzeri S. Septic arthritis in children in resource limited and non-resource limited countries: an update on diagnosis and treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016;14:1087–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook PC. Transient synovitis, septic hip, and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: an approach to the correct diagnosis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2014;61:1109–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daldrup-Link HE, Steinbach L. MR imaging of pediatric arthritis. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2009;17:451–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Backer AI, Vanhoenacker FM, Sanghvi DA. Imaging features of extraaxial musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2009;19:176–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dubois-Ferrière V, Belaieff W, Lascombes P, de Coulon G, Ceroni D. Transient synovitis of the hip: which investigations are truly useful ? Swiss Med Wkly. 2015; https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2015.14176.
Dwek JR. The hip: MR imaging of uniquely pediatric disorders. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2009;17:509–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ernat J, Riccio AI, Fitzpatrick K, Jo C, Wimberly RL. Osteomyelitis is commonly associated with septic arthritis of the shoulder in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017;37:547–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fabry G. Clinical practice: the hip from birth to adolescence. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:143–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frank G, Mahoney HM, Eppes SC. Musculoskeletal infections in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005;52:1083–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manz N, Krieg AH, Heininger U, Ritz N. Evaluation of the current use of imaging modalities and pathogen detection in children with acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. Eur J Pediatr. 2018;177:1071–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monsalve J, Kan JH, Schallert EK, Bisset GS, Zhang W, Rosenfeld SB. Septic arthritis in children: frequency of coexisting unsuspected osteomyelitis and implications on imaging work-up and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015;204:1289–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pattamapaspong N, Sivasomboon C, Settakorn J, Pruksakorn D, Muttarak M. Pitfalls in imaging of musculoskeletal infections. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014;18:86–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prasad A, Manchanda S, Sachdev N, Baruah BP, Manchanda V. Imaging features of pediatric musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42:1235–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pruthi S, Thapa MM. Infectious and inflammatory disorders. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2009;17:423–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ranson M. Imaging of pediatric musculoskeletal infection. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2009;13:277–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schallert EK, Kan JH, Monsalve J, Zhang W, Bisset GS 3rd, Rosenfeld S. Metaphyseal osteomyelitis in children: how often does MRI-documented joint effusion or epiphyseal extension of edema indicate coexisting septic arthritis? Pediatr Radiol. 2015;45:1174–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Song KS, Lee SW, Bae KC. Key role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of infections around the hip and pelvic girdle mimicking septic arthritis of the hip in children. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2016;25:234–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar