Advertisement

Imaging of Sports-Related Musculoskeletal Lesions in Pediatric Patients

  • Sergio Lopes Viana
  • Maria Custódia Machado Ribeiro
  • Bruno Beber Machado
Chapter

Abstract

Children and adolescents have become more and more involved in sports practice in the last few decades, with varied levels of competitiveness. The association of skeletal immaturity and intense physical activity renders this age group especially prone to musculoskeletal lesions. Generally speaking, chronic lesions are more common in pediatric athletes than those related to acute trauma. The latter, caused by the sudden action of high-energy forces, usually do not pose a diagnostic dilemma, while chronic osteoarticular injuries related to repetitive trauma of low intensity without time for adequate repair may mimic other conditions, including articular diseases. This chapter deals with imaging findings of some of the most frequent sports-related lesions in children, such as the different forms of apophysitis, osteochondritis dissecans, stress-related physeal lesions, and stress fractures.

Keywords

Imaging Joints Radiology Children Adolescents Pediatrics Radiographs X-rays Ultrasonography Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging Sports Trauma Apophysitis Osteochondritis dissecans Osteochondrosis Little leaguer’s shoulder Physeal injury Slipped capital femoral epiphysis Stress fracture Gymnast wrist 

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Abdullah SB, Iyer RS, Shet NS. Pediatric osteochondral lesions. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2018;22:57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnaiz J, Piedra T, de Lucas EM, Arnaiz AM, Pelaz M, Gomez-Dermit V, et al. Imaging findings of lower limb apophysitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;196:W316–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bedoya MA, Jaramillo D, Chauvin NA. Overuse injuries in children. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2015;24:67–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cassas KJ, Cassettari-Wayhs A. Childhood and adolescent sports-related overuse injuries. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73:1014–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chauvin NA, Jaimes C, Khwaja A. Ankle and foot injuries in the young athlete. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2018;22:104–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Danger F, Wasyliw C, Varich L. Osteochondroses. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2018;22:118–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davis KW. Imaging pediatric sports injuries: lower extremity. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010;48:1213–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis KW. Imaging pediatric sports injuries: upper extremity. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010;48:1199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Delgado J, Jaramillo D, Chauvin NA. Imaging the injured pediatric athlete: upper extremity. Radiographics. 2016;36:1672–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dwek JR. The hip: MR imaging of uniquely pediatric disorders. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2009;17:509–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Emery KH. Imaging of sports injuries of the upper extremity in children. Clin Sports Med. 2006;25:543–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frick SL. Evaluation of the child who has hip pain. Orthop Clin North Am. 2006;37:133–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghahremani S, Griggs R, Hall T, Motamedi K, Boechat MI. Osteochondral lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014;18:505–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hesper T, Zilkens C, Bittersohl B, Krauspe R. Imaging modalities in patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Child Orthop. 2017;11:99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jawetz ST, Shah PH, Potter HG. Imaging of physeal injury: overuse. Sports Health. 2015;7:142–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kerssemakers SP, Fotiadou AN, de Jonge MC, Karantanas AH, Maas M. Sport injuries in the paediatric and adolescent patient: a growing problem. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39:471–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kijowski R, Tuite MJ. Pediatric throwing injuries of the elbow. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2010;14:419–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Launay F. Sports-related overuse injuries in children. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2015;101:S139–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marshall KW. Overuse upper extremity injuries in the skeletally immature patient: beyond little league shoulder and elbow. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014;18:469–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nguyen JC, Sheehan SE, Davis KW, Gill KG. Sports and the growing musculoskeletal system: sports imaging series. Radiology. 2017;284:25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O’Dell MC, Jaramillo D, Bancroft L, Varich L, Logsdon G, Servaes S. Imaging of sports-related injuries of the lower extremity in pediatric patients. Radiographics. 2016;36:1807–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Patel CV. The foot and ankle: MR imaging of uniquely pediatric disorders. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2009;17:539–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Patel DR. Stress fractures: diagnosis and management in the primary care setting. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2010;57:819–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paz DA, Chang GH, Yetto JM Jr, Dwek JR, Chung CB. Upper extremity overuse injuries in pediatric athletes: clinical presentation, imaging findings, and treatment. Clin Imaging. 2015;39:954–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Polousky JD. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2011;19:56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rosendahl K, Strouse PJ. Sports injury of the pediatric musculoskeletal system. Radiol Med. 2016;121:431–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sanchez R, Strouse PJ. The knee: MR imaging of uniquely pediatric disorders. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2009;17:521–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sanchez TR, Jadhav SP, Swischuk LE. MR imaging of pediatric trauma. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2009;17:439–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shelat NH, El-Khoury GY. Pediatric stress fractures: a pictorial essay. Iowa Orthop J. 2016;36:138–46.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Soprano JV. Musculoskeletal injuries in the pediatric and adolescent athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005;4:329–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Lopes Viana
    • 1
  • Maria Custódia Machado Ribeiro
    • 2
  • Bruno Beber Machado
    • 3
  1. 1.Hospital da Criança de Brasília José Alencar, Hospital Ortopédico e Medicina Especializada (HOME) and Diagnóstico Clínica de Imagens MédicasBrasíliaBrazil
  2. 2.Hospital da Criança de Brasília José AlencarBrasíliaBrazil
  3. 3.Gastren Clínica Médica e Radiológica (Iúna-ES), Clínica Radiológica Med Imagem, Clínica Radiológica Radial, Santa Casa de Misericórdia and Unimed Sul CapixabaCachoeiro de ItapemirimBrazil

Personalised recommendations