Conclusions and Possible Guidelines for Circadian Lighting Design

  • Maurizio RossiEmail author
Part of the Research for Development book series (REDE)


Today there is no internationally accepted standard that establishes rules for designing a circadian lighting system for interior spaces. For several years, in many different contexts, we have been talking about human centric lighting, although both the definition and the practical application of this discipline are controversial and debated. In this concluding chapter, through the analysis of the original research results presented in this book and of other sectoral research, we propose a framework of possible guidelines for circadian lighting. The elements that come into play in this framework are the natural light present in interior spaces, but also lighting design and lighting product design achievable currently thanks to the availability of LED light sources and the new lighting management systems.


  1. Åkerstedt, T., & Wright, K. P. (2009). Sleep loss and fatigue in shift work and shift work disorder. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4(2), 257–271. Scholar
  2. Andersen, M., Mardaljevic, J., & Lockley, S. (2012). A framework for predicting the non-visual effects of daylight—Part I: Photobiology-based model. Lighting Research & Technology, 44(1), 37–53. Scholar
  3. ANSI/IES TM-30-18. Method for evaluating light source color rendition.Google Scholar
  4. Bellia, L., Pedace, A., & Barbato, G. (2013). Lighting in educational environments: An example of a complete analysis of the effects of daylight and electric light on occupants. Building and Environment, 68, 50–65. Scholar
  5. Bellia, L., Pedace, A., & Barbato, G. (2014a). Indoor artificial lighting: Prediction of the circadian effects of different spectral power distributions. Lighting Research & Technology, 46(6), 650–660. Scholar
  6. Bellia, L., Pedace, A., & Barbato, G. (2014b). Winter and summer analysis of daylight characteristics in offices. Building and Environment, 81, 150–161. Scholar
  7. Bellia, L., Pedace, A., & Fragliasso, F. (2017). Indoor lighting quality: Effects of different wall colours. Lighting Research & Technology, 49(1), 33–48. Scholar
  8. Bodrogi, P., Brückner, S., & Khanh, T. Q. (2011). Ordinal scale based description of colour rendering. Color Research & Application, 36(4), 272–285. Scholar
  9. Booker, L. A., et al. (2018). Individual vulnerability to insomnia, excessive sleepiness and shift work disorder amongst healthcare shift workers. A systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 41, 220–233. Scholar
  10. Boubekri, M., Hull, R. B., & Boyer, L. L. (1991). Impact of window size and sunlight penetration on office workers’ mood and satisfaction: A novel way of assessing sunlight. Environment and Behavior, 23(4), 474–493. Scholar
  11. Boyce, P. R., & Cuttle, C. (1990). Effect of correlated colour temperature on the perception of interiors and colour discrimination performance. Lighting Research & Technology, 22(1), 19–36. Scholar
  12. Boyce, P. R., et al. (1997). Lighting the graveyard shift: The influence of a daylight-simulating skylight on the task performance and mood of night-shift workerst. International Journal of Lighting Research and Technology, 29(3), 105–134. Scholar
  13. CIE 013.3-1995. Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources.Google Scholar
  14. CIE 177:2007. Colour rendering of white LED light sources.Google Scholar
  15. CIE 224:2017. Colour fidelity index for accurate scientific use.Google Scholar
  16. Davis, R. G., & Ginthner, D. N. (1990). Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 19(1), 27–38. Scholar
  17. Davis, W., & Ohno, Y. (2010). Color quality scale. Optical Engineering, 49(3), 033602. Scholar
  18. EN 12464-1. (2011). Light and lighting—Lighting of work places——Part 1: Indoor work places.Google Scholar
  19. Farley, K. M. J., & Veitch, J. A. (2001). A room with a view: A review of the effects of windows on work and well-being. NRC Publications Archive—National Research Council Canada. Available at Accessed June 12, 2018.
  20. Figueiro, M. G., et al. (2013). Comparisons of three practical field devices used to measure personal light exposures and activity levels. Lighting Research & Technology (London, England : 2001), 45(4), 421–434. Scholar
  21. Figueiro, M. G., & Rea, M. S. (2014). Office lighting and personal light exposures in two seasons: Impact on sleep and mood. Lighting Research & Technology, 48(3), 352–364. Scholar
  22. Figueiro, M. G., et al. (2015). Daylight in office buildings: Impact of building design on personal light exposures, sleep and mood. In: Proceedings of the 28th Session of the CIE. Manchester: Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage.Google Scholar
  23. Figueiro, M. G., et al. (2017). The impact of daytime light exposures on sleep and mood in office workers. Sleep Health, 3(3), 204–215. Scholar
  24. Figueiro, M. G., et al. (2018a). Circadian-effective light and its impact on alertness in office workers. Lighting Research & Technology (p. 147715351775000).
  25. Figueiro, M. G., Nagare, R., & Price, L. (2018b). Non-visual effects of light: How to use light to promote circadian entrainment and elicit alertness. Lighting Research & Technology, 50(1), 38–62. Scholar
  26. Fotios, S. A. (2001). Lamp colour properties and apparent brightness: A review. Lighting Research & Technology, 33(3), 163–179. Scholar
  27. Freyssinier, J. P., & Rea, M. S. (2010). A two-metric proposal to specify the color-rendering properties of light sources for retail lighting. In: Tenth International Conference on Solid State Lighting. Tenth International Conference on Solid State Lighting, International Society for Optics and Photonics (p. 77840V).
  28. Fumagalli, S., Bonanomi, C., & Rizzi, A. (2015). Experimental assessment of color-rendering indices and color appearance under varying setups. Journal of Modern Optics, 62(1), 56–66. Scholar
  29. Gochenour, S. J., & Andersen, M. (2009). Circadian effects of daylighting in a residential environment. In: Proceedings of Lux Europa 2009.Google Scholar
  30. Hashimoto, K., et al. (2007). New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast. Color Research & Application, 32(5), 361–371. Scholar
  31. Higuchi, S., et al. (2007). Less exposure to daily ambient light in winter increases sensitivity of melatonin to light suppression. Chronobiology International, 24(1), 31–43. Scholar
  32. Houser, K. W. (2018). Human centric lighting and semantic drift. LEUKOS, 14(4), 213–214. Scholar
  33. Hubalek, S., Brink, M., & Schierz, C. (2010). Office workers’ daily exposure to light and its influence on sleep quality and mood. Lighting Research & Technology, 42(1), 33–50. Scholar
  34. IES. (2018). PS-11-18: IES position on TM-30-18, IES method for evaluating light source color rendition. Available at Accessed Nov 5, 2018.
  35. IES TM-30-15. Method for evaluating light source color rendition.Google Scholar
  36. IWBI. (2014). The WELL Building Standard, International WELL Building Institute. Available at Accessed May 14, 2018.
  37. Judd, D. B. (1967). A flattery index for artificial illuminants. Illuminating Engineering, 58. Available at
  38. Kruithof, A. A. (1941). Tubular luminescence lamps for general illumination. Philips Technical Review, VI(3), 65–73.Google Scholar
  39. Kuller, R., & Wetterberg, L. (1993). Melatonin, cortisol, EEG, ECG and subjective comfort in healthy humans: Impact of two fluorescent lamp types at two light intensities. Lighting Research & Technology, 25, 71–80. Scholar
  40. Leather, P., et al. (1998). Windows in the workplace: Sunlight, view, and occupational stress. Environment and Behavior, 30(6), 739–762. Scholar
  41. Leger, D. et al. (2011). Underexposure to light at work and its association to insomnia and sleepiness: A cross-sectional study of 13 296 workers of one transportation company. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 70, 29–36. Scholar
  42. LRC. (2018). Web CS Calculator. Lighting Research Center. Available at Accessed July 20, 2018.
  43. Mardaljevic, J., et al. (2014). A framework for predicting the non-visual effects of daylight—Part II: The simulation model. Lighting Research & Technology, 46(4), 388–406. Scholar
  44. Mills, P. R., Tomkins, S. C., & Schlangen, L. J. (2007). The effect of high correlated colour temperature office lighting on employee wellbeing and work performance. Journal of Circadian Rhythms, 5, 2. Scholar
  45. Munsell. (1915). Munsell color system. Color matching from Munsell color company. Available at Accessed Sept 5, 2018.
  46. Sylvania, O. (2018). LED color calculator. Available at Accessed Nov 5, 2018.
  47. Rea, M. S., et al. (2012). Modelling the spectral sensitivity of the human circadian system. Lighting Research & Technology, 44(4), 386–396. Scholar
  48. Rea, M. S. (2016). Opinion: On being PC. Lighting Research & Technology, 48(3), 266. Scholar
  49. Rea, M. S., & Figueiro, M. G. (2016). Light as a circadian stimulus for architectural lighting. Lighting Research & Technology, 50(4), 497–510. Scholar
  50. Smet, K. A. G., et al. (2010). Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps. Optics Express, 18(25), 26229–26244. Scholar
  51. Smolders, K. C. H. J., de Kort, Y. A. W., & Cluitmans, P. J. M. (2012). A higher illuminance induces alertness even during office hours: Findings on subjective measures, task performance and heart rate measures. Physiology & Behavior, 107(1), 7–16. Scholar
  52. Smolders, K. C. H. J., & de Kort, Y. A. W. (2014). Bright light and mental fatigue: Effects on alertness, vitality, performance and physiological arousal. Journal of Environmental Psychology (Light, lighting, and human behaviour), 39, 77–91. Scholar
  53. Thornton, W. A. (1974). A validation of the color-preference index. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 4(1), 48–52. Scholar
  54. Veitch, J. A., & Newsham, G. R. (1998). Lighting quality and energy-efficiency effects on task performance, mood, health, satisfaction, and comfort. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 27(1), 107–129. Scholar
  55. Viénot, F., Durand, M.-L., & Mahler, E. (2009). Kruithof’s rule revisited using LED illumination. Journal of Modern Optics, 56(13), 1433–1446. Scholar
  56. Viola, A. U., et al. (2008). Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 34(4), 297–306. Scholar
  57. Wang, X.-S., et al. (2011). Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence. Occupational Medicine (Oxford, England), 61(2), 78–89. Scholar
  58. Wijk, H., et al. (2002). Colour perception among the very elderly related to visual and cognitive function. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 16(1), 91–102. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio Luce, Department of DesignPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations