Advertisement

Evaluation of Artificial Light with Respect to Human Health

  • Maurizio RossiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Research for Development book series (REDE)

Abstract

After having illustrated in the second chapter the various relationships existing between light and human physiology, the focus here is on the quantitative aspects of light, which can be used as part of the requirements of the lighting design methodology, which may have NIF effects on the organism. The emphasis is placed on the dose-effect relationships that can come into play in human centric lighting, as positive or negative elements, and on possible sources of risks, with particular reference to LED light. These elements include consolidated requirements of lighting design, such as the control of glare and of the temporal modulation of light, which are now applied to LED lighting. A further topic of reflection, which has seen a lot of interest by the press, concerns the presumed photobiological hazard related to LED lighting. Finally, starting from the assumption that melatonin is the main marker able to detect the state of the human circadian cycle, this chapter introduces the basic elements for the possibility of defining a circadian photometry that can support the activity of the lighting designer, evaluating the current state of the research in this regard.

References

  1. ANSI/IES RP-27.1-15. (2015). Recommended practice photobiological safety lamps lamp systems—General requirements.Google Scholar
  2. ANSI/IESNA RP27.1.27. (1996). Photobiological safety of lamps and lighting systems.Google Scholar
  3. Artigas, J. M., et al. (2012). Spectral transmission of the human crystalline lens in adult and elderly persons: Color and total transmission of visible light. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 53(7), 4076–4084.  https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-9471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aslam, T. M., Haider, D., & Murray, I. J. (2007). Principles of disability glare measurement: An ophthalmological perspective. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 85(4), 354–360.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0420.2006.00860.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ASSIST. (2015). Recommended metric for assessing the direct perception of light source flicker. Available at: https://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/assist/pdf/AR-FlickerMetric.pdf (Retrieved: July 16, 2018).
  6. ASSIST. (2017). Evaluating light source flicker for stroboscopic effects and general acceptability. Available at: https://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/assist/pdf/AR-FlickerStrobEval.pdf (Retrieved: July 16, 2018).
  7. Bailes, H. J., & Lucas, R. J. (2013). Human melanopsin forms a pigment maximally sensitive to blue light (λmax ≈ 479 nm) supporting activation of Gq/11 and Gi/o signalling cascades. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280(1759).  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.2987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barker, F., & Brainard, G. (1991). The direct spectral transmittance of the excised human lens as a function of age (FDA 785345 0090 RA). US Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.chemie.uni-wuerzburg.de/fileadmin/08020000/user_upload/makula/transmittance.pdf (Retrieved: May 15, 2018).
  9. Bellia, L., & Seraceni, M. (2014). A proposal for a simplified model to evaluate the circadian effects of light sources. Lighting Research & Technology, 46(5), 493–505.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153513490715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benloucif, S., et al. (2005). Stability of melatonin and temperature as circadian phase markers and their relation to sleep times in humans. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 20(2), 178–188.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0748730404273983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berman, S. M., et al. (1991). Human electroretinogram responses to video displays, fluorescent lighting, and other high frequency sources. Optometry and Vision Science, 68(8), 645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berson, D. M., Dunn, F. A., & Takao, M. (2002). Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Science, 295(5557), 1070–1073.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1067262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berson, D. M. (2003). Strange vision: Ganglion cells as circadian photoreceptors. Trends in Neurosciences, 26(6), 314–320.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0166-2236(03)00130-9.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bierman, A. (2017). A model for predicting stroboscopic flicker. In IES 2017 Annual Conference Proceedings. New York: IES.Google Scholar
  15. Binnie, C. D., de Korte, R. A., & Wisman, T. (1979). Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy. Epilepsia, 20(6), 725–727.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1979.tb04856.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Binnie, C. D., et al. (2002). Characterizing the flashing television images that precipitate seizures. SMPTE Journal, 111(6–7), 323–329.  https://doi.org/10.5594/j15330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bodington, D., Bierman, A., & Narendran, N. (2016). A flicker perception metric. Lighting Research & Technology, 48(5), 624–641.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153515581006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bodkin, H. (2018). New LED streetlights may double cancer risk, new research warns. The Telegraph, April 26, 2018.Google Scholar
  19. Boettner, E. A., & Wolter, J. R. (1962). Transmission of the ocular media. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 1(6), 776–783.Google Scholar
  20. Boivin, D. B., et al. (1996). Dose-response relationships for resetting of human circadian clock by light. Nature, 379(6565), 540–542.  https://doi.org/10.1038/379540a0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boyce, P. (2014). Human factors in lighting (3rd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brainard, G. C., et al. (1988). Dose-response relationship between light irradiance and the suppression of plasma melatonin in human volunteers. Brain Research, 454(1), 212–218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(88)90820-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brainard, G. C., Rollag, M. D., & Hanifin, J. P. (1997). Photic regulation of melatonin in humans: Ocular and neural signal transduction. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 12(6), 537–546.  https://doi.org/10.1177/074873049701200608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brainard, G. C., et al. (2001a). Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: Evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor. Journal of Neuroscience, 21(16), 6405–6412.  https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.21-16-06405.2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brainard, G. C., et al. (2001b). Human melatonin regulation is not mediated by the three cone photopic visual system. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86(1), 433–436.  https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.86.1.7277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brainard, G. C., et al. (2008). Sensitivity of the human circadian system to short-wavelength (420-nm) light. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 23(5), 379–386.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0748730408323089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bullough, J. D., et al. (2008). On melatonin suppression from polychromatic and narrowband light. Chronobiology International, 25(4), 653–656.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07420520802247472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bullough, J., et al. (2011). Effects of flicker characteristics from solid-state lighting on detection, acceptability and comfort. Lighting Research & Technology, 43(3), 337–348.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153511401983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bullough, J. D., Bierman, A., & Rea, M. S. (2017). Evaluating the blue-light hazard from solid state lighting. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE, 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2017.1375172.
  30. Burns, S. A., Elsner, A. E., & Kreitz, M. R. (1992). Analysis of nonlinearities in the flicker ERG. Optometry and Vision Science, 69(2), 95–105. (Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chamorro, E., et al. (2013). Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 89(2), 468–473.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01237.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. CIBSE. (2013). Lighting guide 9: Lighting for communal residential building LG9. Available at: https://www.cibse.org/knowledge/knowledge-items/detail?id=a0q20000008I7kJAAS (Retrieved: July 8, 2018).
  33. CIE 117:1995. Discomfort glare in interior lighting.Google Scholar
  34. CIE 190:2010. Calculation and presentation of united glare rating tables for indoor lighting luminaires.Google Scholar
  35. CIE TN 003:2015a. Report on the first international workshop on circadian and neurophysiological photometry, 2013. Available at: http://www.cie.co.at/publications/report-first-international-workshop-circadian-and-neurophysiological-photometry-2013 (Retrieved: April 21, 2018).
  36. CIE TN 003:2015b. Toolbox. Available at: http://files.cie.co.at/784_TN003_Toolbox.xls (Retrieved: May 15, 2018).
  37. CIE TN 006:2016. Visual aspects of time-modulated lighting systems—Definitions and measurement models.Google Scholar
  38. CIE TN 008:2017. Final report CIE stakeholder workshop for temporal light modulation standards for lighting systems.Google Scholar
  39. Cossar, V.-M. (2013). LED lights: Should we worry about damage to our eyes? Metro, December 9, 2013.Google Scholar
  40. Dacey, D. M., et al. (2005). Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN. Nature, 433(7027), 749–754.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. de Lange, H. (1958). Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea → cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. I. Attenuation characteristics with white and colored light. JOSA, 48(11), 777–784.  https://doi.org/10.1364/josa.48.000777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. de Lange, H. (1961). Eye’s response at flicker fusion to square-wave modulation of a test field surrounded by a large steady field of equal mean luminance. JOSA, 51(4), 415–421.  https://doi.org/10.1364/josa.51.000415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Diano, J. (2004). Freschezza di idee: la luce come regolatore del nostro orologio biologico, in Convegno Nazionale Associazione Italiana Di Illuminazione. Genova: AIDI.Google Scholar
  44. Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 December 2001 on general product safety (Text with EEA relevance).Google Scholar
  45. Directive 2006/25/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising from physical agents (artificial optical radiation) (19th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC).Google Scholar
  46. Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on the safety of toys (Text with EEA relevance).Google Scholar
  47. Directive 2014/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits Text with EEA relevance.Google Scholar
  48. EN 62471:2008. Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems.Google Scholar
  49. EN 12464-1:2011. Light and lighting—Lighting of work places—Part 1: Indoor work places.Google Scholar
  50. EN 62115:2005 + A12:2015. Electric toys. Safety.Google Scholar
  51. Enezi, J., et al. (2011). A “melanopic” spectral efficiency function predicts the sensitivity of melanopsin photoreceptors to polychromatic lights. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 26(4), 314–323.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0748730411409719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Farnsworth, D. (1943). The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue and dichotomous tests for color vision. JOSA, 33(10), 568–578.  https://doi.org/10.1364/josa.33.000568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Figueiro, M. G., et al. (2004). Preliminary evidence for spectral opponency in the suppression of melatonin by light in humans. NeuroReport, 15(2), 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Figueiro, M. G., et al. (2005). Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, 26(5), 493–498.Google Scholar
  55. Figueiro, M. G., Rea, M. S., & Bullough, J. D. (2006). Circadian effectiveness of two polychromatic lights in suppressing human nocturnal melatonin. Neuroscience Letters, 406(3), 293–297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2006.07.069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Figueiro, M. G., Bierman, A., & Rea, M. S. (2008). Retinal mechanisms determine the subadditive response to polychromatic light by the human circadian system. Neuroscience Letters, 438(2), 242–245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.04.055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Figueiro, M. G., et al. (2016). Light at night and measures of alertness and performance: Implications for shift workers. Biological Research for Nursing, 18(1), 90–100.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1099800415572873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fisher, R. S., et al. (2005). Photic- and pattern-induced seizures: A review for the Epilepsy Foundation of America working group. Epilepsia, 46(9), 1426–1441.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.31405.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. FprEN 62115:2016. Electric toys—Safety. Available at: https://www.cenelec.eu/dyn/www/f?p=104:110:311166124775401::::FSP_ORG_ID,FSP_PROJECT,FSP_LANG_ID:1257159,61861,25 (Retrieved: August 13, 2018).
  60. Gall, D., & Bieske, K. (2004). Definition and measurement of circadian radiometric quantities. In Proceedings of the CIE Symposium ‘04 on Light and Health (pp. 129–132).Google Scholar
  61. Gray, R., & Regan, D. (2007). Glare susceptibility test results correlate with temporal safety margin when executing turns across approaching vehicles in simulated low-sun conditions. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 27(5), 440–450.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-1313.2007.00503.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hankins, M. W., & Lucas, R. J. (2002). The primary visual pathway in humans is regulated according to long-term light exposure through the action of a nonclassical photopigment. Current Biology, 12(3), 191–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-9822(02)00659-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hanson, A. F., & Berdoy, M. (2010). Rats. In V. V. Tynes (Ed.), Behavior of exotic pets (pp. 104–116). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  64. Harding, G. F. A., & Jeavons, P. M. (1994). Photosensitive epilepsy (New ed.). London: Mac Keith Press.Google Scholar
  65. Harding, G. F. A., & Harding, P. F. (2010). Photosensitive epilepsy and image safety. Applied Ergonomics, 41(4), 504–508.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2008.08.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hattar, S., et al. (2003). Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice. Nature, 424(6944), 76–81.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hering, E. (1964). Outlines of a theory of the light sense (1st ed.) (L. M. Hurvich & D. Jameson, Trans.). Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Hershberger, W. A., & Jordan, J. S. (1998). The phantom array: A perisaccadic illusion of visual direction. The Psychological Record, 48(1), 21–32.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03395256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Higlett, M. P., O’Hagan, J. B., & Khazova, M. (2012). Safety of light emitting diodes in toys. Journal of Radiological Protection, 32(1), 51.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/32/1/51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Huang, Y.-Y., & Menozzi, M. (2014). Effects of discomfort glare on performance in attending peripheral visual information in displays. Displays, 35(5), 240–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2014.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hurvich, L. M., & Jameson, D. (1957). An opponent-process theory of colour vision. Psychological Review, 64(6, Pt.1), 384–404.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0041403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. ICNIRP. (1997). Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3 microM). International commission on non-ionizing radiation protection. Health Physics, 73(3), 539–554.Google Scholar
  73. ICNIRP. (2002). General approach to protection against non-ionizing radiation. Health Physics, 82(4), 540–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. ICNIRP. (2013). ICNIRP guidelines on limits of exposure to incoherent visible and infrared radiation. Health Physics, 105(1), 74.  https://doi.org/10.1097/hp.0b013e318289a611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. IEC 60598-1:2014 + AMD1:2017. CSV luminaires—Part 1: General requirements and tests.Google Scholar
  76. IEC 61000-3-3:2013. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 3-3: Limits—Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems, for equipment with rated current ≤16 A per phase and not subject to conditional connection.Google Scholar
  77. IEC 61000-4-15:2010. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)—Part 4-15: Testing and measurement techniques—Flickermeter—Functional and design specifications.Google Scholar
  78. IEC 62031:2018. LED modules for general lighting—Safety specifications.Google Scholar
  79. IEC 62471/CIE S 009/E&F:2002. Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems.Google Scholar
  80. IEC 62471:2006. Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems.Google Scholar
  81. IEC TR 61547-1:2017. Equipment for general lighting purposes—EMC immunity requirements—Part 1: An objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity test method.Google Scholar
  82. IEC TR 62471-2:2009. Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems—Part 2: Guidance on manufacturing requirements relating to non-laser optical radiation safety.Google Scholar
  83. IEC TR 62471-3:2015. Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems—Part 3: Guidelines for the safe use of intense pulsed light source equipment on humans.Google Scholar
  84. IEC TR 62778:2014. Application of IEC 62471 for the assessment of blue light hazard to light sources and luminaires.Google Scholar
  85. IEEE 1789-2015. IEEE recommended practices for modulating current in high-brightness LEDs for mitigating health risks to viewers.Google Scholar
  86. IES. (2011). The lighting handbook (10th ed.). New York: Illuminating Engineering Society.Google Scholar
  87. ISO 8995-1:2002/CIE S 008/E:2001. Lighting of work places—Part 1: Indoor.Google Scholar
  88. Jaadane, I., et al. (2015). Retinal damage induced by commercial light emitting diodes (LEDs). Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 84, 373–384.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.03.034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jaén, E. M., et al. (2005). Office workers visual performance and temporal modulation of fluorescent lighting. LEUKOS, 1(4), 27–46.  https://doi.org/10.1582/leukos.01.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jaén, E. M., Colombo, E. M., & Kirschbaum, C. F. (2011). A simple visual task to assess flicker effects on visual performance. Lighting Research & Technology, 43(4), 457–471.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153511405409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. James, R. H., et al. (2017). Evaluation of the potential optical radiation hazards with led lamps intended for home use. Health Physics, 112(1), 11–17.  https://doi.org/10.1097/hp.0000000000000580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kelly, D. H. (1961). Visual responses to time-dependent stimuli.* I. Amplitude sensitivity measurements. JOSA, 51(4), 422–429.  https://doi.org/10.1364/josa.51.000422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kennedy, A., & Murray, W. S. (1991). The effects of flicker on eye movement control. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 43(1), 79–99.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14640749108401000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kindel, E. (2005). Ishihara. Nine decades on, a Japanese army doctor’s invention is still being used to test colour vision. Eye Magazine, 14(56).Google Scholar
  95. Knez, I. (2014). Affective and cognitive reactions to subliminal flicker from fluorescent lighting. Consciousness and Cognition, 26, 97–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.02.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kohen, E., Santus, R., & Hirschberg, J. G. (1995). Photobiology (1st ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  97. Kraneburg, A., et al. (2017). Effect of colour temperature on melatonin production for illumination of working environments. Applied Ergonomics, 58, 446–453.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2016.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Krigel, A., et al. (2016). Light-induced retinal damage using different light sources, protocols and rat strains reveals LED phototoxicity. Neuroscience, 339, 296–307.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.10.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lehman, B. et al. (2011). Proposing measures of flicker in the low frequencies for lighting applications. In 2011 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (pp. 2865–2872).  https://doi.org/10.1109/ecce.2011.6064154.
  100. Lerman, S. (1987). Chemical and physical properties of the normal and aging lens: Spectroscopic (UV, fluorescence, phosphorescence, and NMR) analyses. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, 64(1), 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Levinson, J. (1960). Fusion of complex flicker II. Science, 131(3411), 1438–1440.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.131.3411.1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lewy, A. J., Cutler, N. L., & Sack, R. L. (1999). The endogenous melatonin profile as a marker for circadian phase position. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 14(3), 227–236.  https://doi.org/10.1177/074873099129000641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lipson, E. (2012). Action spectroscopy: General problems. In A. Griesbeck, M. Oelgemöller & F. Ghetti (Eds.), CRC handbook of organic photochemistry and photobiology (3rd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  104. LRC. (2017). Circadian stimulus calculator. Lighting Research Center. Available at: http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/CSCalculator_2017_10_03_Mac.xlsm (Retrieved: July 20, 2018).
  105. LRC. (2018). Web CS calculator. Lighting Research Center. Available at: https://www.lrc.rpi.edu/cscalculator/ (Retrieved: July 20, 2018).
  106. Lucas, R. J., et al. (2003). Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5604), 245–247.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1077293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mainster, M. A., & Turner, P. L. (2012). Glare’s causes, consequences, and clinical challenges after a century of ophthalmic study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 153(4), 587–593.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2012.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mclntyre, I. M., et al. (1989). Human melatonin suppression by light is intensity dependent. Journal of Pineal Research, 6(2), 149–156.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079x.1989.tb00412.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mecherikunnel, A. T., & Richmond, J. C. (1908). Spectral distribution of solar radiation. NASA. Available at: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19810016493.pdf (Retrieved: February 14, 2018).
  110. Morita, T., & Tokura, H. (1996). Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans. Applied Human Science, 15(5), 243–246.  https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa.15.243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Musante, F., & Rossi, M. (2016). The evaluation of flicker in LED lighting systems. LUCE, 54(318), 101–106.Google Scholar
  112. NEMA TLAs-2015. Temporal light artifacts (flicker and stroboscopic effects).Google Scholar
  113. NEMA 77-2017. Temporal light artifacts: Test methods and guidance for acceptance criteria.Google Scholar
  114. O’Hagan, J. B., Khazova, M., & Price, L. L. A. (2016). Low-energy light bulbs, computers, tablets and the blue light hazard. Eye, 30(2), 230–233.  https://doi.org/10.1038/eye.2015.261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ollove, M. (2016). Some cities are taking another look at LED lighting after AMA warning. Washington Post, September 25, 2016.Google Scholar
  116. Olsen, J., et al. (2014). Human factors study on light modulation in indirect office lighting. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (pp. 1104–1108).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1541931214581231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. OSRAM SYLVANIA. (2017). LED color calculator. Available at: https://www.osram.us/cb/tools-and-resources/applications/led-colourcalculator/index.jsp (Retrieved: May 10, 2018).
  118. Panda, S., et al. (2002). Melanopsin (Opn4) requirement for normal light-induced circadian phase shifting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5601), 2213–2216.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1076848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Panda, S., et al. (2003). Melanopsin is required for non-image-forming photic responses in blind mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5632), 525–527.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1086179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Perz, M., et al. (2015). Modeling the visibility of the stroboscopic effect occurring in temporally modulated light systems. Lighting Research & Technology, 47(3), 281–300.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153514534945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Quirk, J. A., et al. (1995). First seizures associated with playing electronic screen games: A community-based study in Great Britain. Annals of Neurology, 37(6), 733–737.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410370606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rand, D., Lehman, B., & Shteynberg, A. (2007) Issues, models and solutions for triac modulated phase dimming of LED lamps. In 2007 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (pp. 1398–1404).  https://doi.org/10.1109/pesc.2007.4342199.
  123. Rea, M. S., Bullough, J. D., & Figueiro, M. G. (2001). Human melatonin suppression by light: A case for scotopic efficiency. Neuroscience Letters, 299(1), 45–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3940(01)01512-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rea, M. S., Bullough, J. D., & Figueiro, M. G. (2002a). Phototransduction for human melatonin suppression. Journal of Pineal Research, 32(4), 209–213.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-079x.2002.01881.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rea, M. S., Figueiro, M. G., & Bullough, J. D. (2002b). Circadian photobiology: An emerging framework for lighting practice and research. Lighting Research & Technology, 34(3), 177–187.  https://doi.org/10.1191/1365782802lt057oa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rea, M. S., et al. (2012). Modelling the spectral sensitivity of the human circadian system. Lighting Research & Technology, 44(4), 386–396.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153511430474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rea, M. S., & Figueiro, M. G. (2013). A working threshold for acute nocturnal melatonin suppression from white light sources used in architectural applications. Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis, 4(3), 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-2518.1000150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rea, M. S., & Figueiro, M. G. (2016). Light as a circadian stimulus for architectural lighting. Lighting Research & Technology, 50(4), 497–510.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153516682368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Revell, V. L., & Skene, D. J. (2007). Light-induced melatonin suppression in humans with polychromatic and monochromatic light. Chronobiology International, 24(6), 1125–1137.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07420520701800652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Roberts, J., & Wilkins, A. (2013). Flicker can be perceived during saccades at frequencies in excess of 1 kHz. Lighting Research & Technology, 45(1), 124–132.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153512436367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rosenthal, N. E. (1991). Plasma melatonin as a measure of the human clock. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 73(2), 225–226.  https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem-73-2-225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. SCHEER. (2016). Scientific committee on health, environmental and emerging risks—Public health—European commission. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/scheer_en (Retrieved: July 7, 2018).
  133. SCHEER. (2018). Opinion on potential risks to human health of light emitting diodes (LEDs). European Commission. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/scheer/docs/scheer_o_011.pdf (Retrieved: August 6, 2018).
  134. Shang, Y.-M., et al. (2014). White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at domestic lighting levels and retinal injury in a rat model. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(3), 269–276.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shepherd, A. J. (2010). Visual stimuli, light and lighting are common triggers of migraine and headache. Journal of Light & Visual Environment, 34(2), 94–100.  https://doi.org/10.2150/jlve.34.94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sliney, D. H., Bergman, R., & O’Hagan, J. (2016). Photobiological risk classification of lamps and lamp systems—History and rationale. LEUKOS, 12(4), 213–234.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15502724.2016.1145551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Thapan, K., Arendt, J., & Skene, D. J. (2001). An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: Evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans. Journal of Physiology, 535(1), 261–267.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.t01-1-00261.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Timm, R. M. (2005). Norway rats, Internet center for wildlife damage management. Available at: http://icwdm.org/handbook/rodents/NorwayRats.asp (Retrieved: August 8, 2018).
  139. van Bommel, W., & van den Beld, G. (2004). Lighting for work: A review of visual and biological effects. Lighting Research & Technology, 36(4), 255–266.  https://doi.org/10.1191/1365782804li122oa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Veitch, J. A., & McColl, S. L. (1995). Modulation of fluorescent light: Flicker rate and light source effects on visual performance and visual comfort. International Journal of Lighting Research and Technology, 27(4), 243–256.  https://doi.org/10.1177/14771535950270040301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wilkins, A. J., et al. (1989). Fluorescent lighting, headaches and eyestrain. Lighting Research & Technology, 21(1), 11–18.  https://doi.org/10.1177/096032718902100102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wilkins, A. J., Veitch, J., & Lehman, B. (2010). LED lighting flicker and potential health concerns: IEEE standard PAR1789 update. In 2010 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (pp. 171–178).  https://doi.org/10.1109/ecce.2010.5618050.
  143. Wyszecki, G., & Stiles, W. S. (2000). Color science: Concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulae (2nd ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  144. Zeitzer, J. M., et al. (2000). Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: Melatonin phase resetting and suppression. The Journal of Physiology, 526(Pt 3), 695–702.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.00695.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio Luce, Department of DesignPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations