Causes of Variation Orders in Construction: A Case Study of Polokwane, Limpopo Province

  • Pfumelani Maluleke
  • Clinton Aigbavboa
  • Wellington Didibhuku ThwalaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 903)


The construction Industry is one of the biggest employment generators in the South Africa. However, the industry suffers delays caused by the occurrence of variation orders which are also evident in other countries world-wide. The current study evaluates the causes of variation orders in Polokwane, Limpopo Province. The information used in this study was obtained from secondary sources through thoroughly conducted literature review and primary sources through questionnaire circulated among construction professionals in Polokwane. Out of 150 circulated questionnaires, only 105 respondents reverted back which denotes 70% of them. Findings showed that design changes, change of plans, change of scope, Inadequate specification, defects in design, defects in Bill of Quantities, change in specification, owner’s financial difficulties, errors and omissions in design and Inadequate working drawings were the leading causes of variation orders in Polokwane. Therefore the study adds up to the existing knowledge on the causes variation orders.


Change order Causes Variation order and construction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pfumelani Maluleke
    • 1
  • Clinton Aigbavboa
    • 1
  • Wellington Didibhuku Thwala
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Construction Management and Quantity SurveyingUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa

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