Advertisement

6 Demography of Race and Ethnicity

  • Rogelio SáenzEmail author
  • Maria Cristina Morales
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

One of the most permanent features of the United States is racial and ethnic stratification. Race and ethnicity are important dimensions in understanding the demography of the United States, for racial and ethnic groups vary tremendously with respect to population composition, population processes, and their life chances and access to opportunity structures. This chapter focuses on the demography of racial and ethnic groups and consists of four main sections. First, the conceptualization, substantive concerns, and relevance of race and ethnicity to demography are examined. Second, we provide an overview of theoretical perspectives that have been used to understand racial and ethnic groups. Third, the methodological issues related to the study of race and ethnicity are discussed along with key empirical findings. Finally, directions for future research are discussed, and a few research areas that merit attention are highlighted.

Keywords

Demography Race Racism Inequality Stratification Ethnicity 

References

  1. Abraído, A.F., B.P. Dohrenwend, D.S. Ng-Mak, and J.B. Turner. (1999). The Latino Mortality Paradox: A Test of the ‘Salmon Bias’ and Health Migrant Hypotheses. Journal of Public Health, 89 (10), 1543–1548.Google Scholar
  2. Alba, R.D. (1999). Immigration and the American Realities of Assimilation and Multiculturalism. Sociological Forum, 14, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba, R., B. Beck, and D.B. Sahin. (2018). The Rise of Mixed Parentage: A Sociological and Demographic Phenomenon to be Reckoned With. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 677 (May), 26–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alba, R. and V. Nee. (2003). Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alba, R., P. Kasinitz, and M.C. Waters. (2011). The Kids Are (Mostly) Alright: Second-Generation Assimilation: Comments on Haller, Portes and Lynch. Social Forces, 89 (3), 763–773.Google Scholar
  6. Alcalá, H. and M.F.L. Montoya. (2018). Association of Skin Color and Generation on Arrests Among Mexican-Origin Latinos. Race and Justice, 8 (2), 178–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ambrosetti, E. and E. Cela. (2015). Demography of Race and Ethnicity in Italy. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 457–482). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, R.N. and R. Saenz. (1994). Structural Determinants of Mexican American Intermarriages, 1975-1980. Social Science Quarterly, 75, 414–430.Google Scholar
  9. Aranda, E. (2017). An Ethnoracial Perspective: Response to Valdez and Golash-Boza. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40 (13), 2232–2239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arenas, E., N. Goldman, A.R. Pebley, and G. Teruel. (2015). Return Migration to Mexico: Does Health Matter? Demography, 52, 1853–1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Armenta, A. (2016). Between Public Service and Social Control: Policing Dilemmas in the Era of Immigration Enforcement. Social Problems, 63 (1), 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2011). Life Expectancy and Mortality among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
  13. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017). Trends in Indigenous Mortality and Life Expectancy 2001-2015: Evidence from the Enhanced Mortality Database. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
  14. Bachmeier, J.D., J. Van Hook, and F.D. Bean. (2014). Can We Measure Immigrants' Legal Status? Lessons from Two U.S. Surveys. The International Migration Review, 48 (2), 538–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bar-Haim, E. and M. Semyonov. (2015). Ethnic Stratification in Israel. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 323–337). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baumle, A.K. and M. Fossett. (2005). Statistical Discrimination in Employment: Its Practice, Conceptualization, and Implications for Public Policy. The American Behavioral Scientist, 48 (9), 1250–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bean, F.D., R.G. Cushing, C.W. Haynes, and J.V.W. Van Hook. (1997). Immigration and the Social Contract. Social Science Quarterly, 78, 249–268.Google Scholar
  18. Biddle, N., S.-E. Khoo, and J. Taylor. (2015). Indigenous Australia, White Australia, Multicultural Australia: The Demography of Race and Ethnicity in Australia. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 599–622). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Black, D.A. Y.-C. Hsu, S.G. Sanders, L.S. Schofield, and L.J. Taylor. (2017). The Methuselah Effect: The Pernicious Impact of Unreported Deaths on Old-Age Mortality Estimates. Demography, 54, 2001–2024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blalock, H.M. (1967). Toward a Theory of Minority-Group Relations. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Blau, P.M. (1977). Inequality and Heterogeneity: A Primitive of Social Structure. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  22. Blau, P.M. (1994). Structural Contexts of Opportunities. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Blau, P.M. and J.E. Schwartz. (1997). Crosscutting Social Circles: Testing a Macrostructural Theory of Intergroup Relations. 2nd ed. Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  24. Blauner, R.A. (1969). Internal Colonialism and Ghetto Revolt. Social Problems, 16, 393–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blauner, R.A. (1972). Racial Oppression in America. New York, NY: Harper.Google Scholar
  26. Bolt, G., A.S. Özüekren, and D. Phillips. (2010). Linking Integration and Residential Segregation. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36 (2), 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2001). White Supremacy and Racism in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Bonilla-Silva, E. (1997). Rethinking Racism: Toward a Structural Interpretation. American Sociological Review, 62, 465–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2004). From Bi-racial to Tri-racial: Towards a New System of Racial Stratification in the USA. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 27 (6), 931–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2017). Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America. 5th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  31. Borchigud, W. (1995). Transgressing Ethnic and National Boundaries: Contemporary ‘Inner Mongolian’ Identities in China. In M.J. Brown (ed.), Negotiating Ethnicities in China and Taiwan (Pp. 160–181). Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  32. Boyd, M. (2015). Ethnicity and Race in Canada: Past and Present. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 23–45). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bratter, J.L. (2015). Demography of Race and Ethnicity in the United States. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 47–69). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bratter, J.L. (2018). Multiracial Identification and Racial Gaps: A Work in Progress. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 677 (1), 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Caldwell, K.L. (2016). Centering African-Descendant Women in HIV/AIDS Research, Policy, and Praxis in Brazil. Meridians, 14 (1), 121–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Capps, K. (2018). The Census Will Add A Citizenship Question. What Happens Next? Citilab, (March 27), https://www.citylab.com/equity/2018/03/the-census-will-add-a-citizenship-question/556577/. [retrieved August 10, 2018].
  37. Case, A. and A. Deaton. (2015). Rising Morbidity and Mortality in Midlife among White Non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st Century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112 (49), 15078–15083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Case, A. and A. Deaton. (2017). Mortality and Morbidity in the 21st Century. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, (Spring), 397–476, https://www.brookings.edu/bpea-articles/mortality-and-morbidity-in-the-21st-century/ [accessed 08/31/18].
  39. Cebolla-Boado, H. and L. Salazar. (2016). Differences in Perinatal Health between Immigrant and Native-Origin Children: Evidence from Differentials in Birth Weight in Spain. Demographic Research, 35 (Jul.-Dec.), 167–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Centers for Disease Control. (2018). CDC WONDER Database: About Underlying Cause of Death, 1999-2016, https://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html [accessed 07/24/2018].
  41. Chary, A., D. Flood, K. Austad, J. Moore, N. King, B. Martinez, P. Garcia, W. Lopez, S. Dasgupta-Tsikinas, and P. Rohloff. (2016). Navigating Bureaucracy: Accompanying Indigenous May Patients with Complex Health Care Needs in Guatemala. Human Organizations, 75 (4), 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Choi, K.H. (2014). Fertility in the Context of Mexican Migration to the United States: A Case for Incorporating the Pre-migration Fertility of Immigrants. Demographic Research, 30, 703–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chou, R.S., and J.R. Feagin. (2015). Myth of the Model Minority: Asian Americans Facing Racism. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Coleman, D. (2006). Immigration and Ethnic Change in Low‐Fertility Countries: A Third Demographic Transition. Population and Development Review, 32 (3), 401–446. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Collins, P.H., and S. Bilge. (2016). Intersectionality. Malden, MA: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  46. Cotton, J. (1993). A Regional Analysis of Black Male-White Male Wage Differences. Review of Black Political Economy, 22 (1), 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cox, O.C. (1948). Caste, Class, and Race. New York, NY: Monthly Review Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cready, C.M. and R. Saenz. (1997). The Nonmetero/Metro Context of Racial/Ethnic Outmarriage: Some Differences between African Americans and Mexican Americans. Rural Sociology, 62, 355–362.Google Scholar
  49. Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. Uni Chic Legal F, 139–167.Google Scholar
  50. Cruz-Janzen, M. (2002). Ethnic Identity and Racial Formations: Race and Racism American-Style and a lo Latino. In C.G. Velez-Ibanez and A. Sampaio (eds.), Transnational Latina/o Communities: Politics, Processes, and Cultures (Pp. 147–66). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  51. Currington, C.V., K-H. Lin, and J.H. Lundquist. (2015). Positioning Multiraciality in Cyberspace. American Sociological Review, 80 (4), 764–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Davenport, L.D. (2016). The Role of Gender, Class, and Religion in Biracial Americans’ Racial Labeling Decisions. American Sociological Review, 81 (1), 57–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. DeVaro, J.L. and J.M. Lacker. (1995). Errors in Variables and Lending Discrimination. Federal Serve Bank of Richmond Economic Quarterly, 81, 19–32.Google Scholar
  54. Dikotter, F. (1992). The Discourse of Race in Modern China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Disney, G., A. Teng, J. Atkinson, N. Wilson, and T. Blakely. (2017). Changing Ethnic Inequalities in Mortality in New Zealand Over 30 Years: Linked Cohort Studies with 68.9 Million Person-Years of Follow-Up. Population Health Metrics, 15, 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Diversity and Disparities. (2018). Residential Segregation: Download. Available at https://s4.ad.brown.edu/projects/diversity/Data/Data.htm [accessed on 08/01/2018].
  57. Doane, A.W. and E. Bonilla-Silva (eds.). (2003). White Out: The Continuing Significance of Racism. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Drake, S.C. and H.R. Cayton. (1945). Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. New York, NY: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  59. Du Bois, W.E.B. (1896). The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870. New York, NY: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  60. Du Bois, W.E.B. (1903). The Souls of Black Folk. New York, NY: Fawcett World Library.Google Scholar
  61. Du Bois, W.E.B. (1909). The Negro American Family. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  62. Duncan, B. and S.J. Trejo. (2011). Intermarriage and the International Transmission of Ethnic Identity and Human Capital for Mexican Americans. Journal of Labor Economics, 29 (2), 195–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dupray, A. and A. Pailhé. (2018). Does Employment Uncertainty Particularly Impact Fertility of Children of North African Immigrants in France? A Gender Perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44 (Mar.), 401–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Emeka, A. and J.A. Vallejo. (2011). Non-Hispanics with Latin American Ancestry: Assimilation, Race, and Identity among Latin American Descendants in the US. Social Science Research, 40 (6), 1547–1563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Eryurt, M.A. and I. Koç. (2015). Demography of Ethnicity in Turkey. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 483–502). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Eschbach, K. and C. Gomez. (1998). Choosing Hispanic Identity: Ethnic Identity Switching among Respondents to High School and Beyond. Social Science Quarterly, 79, 74–90.Google Scholar
  67. Farley, R. (1996). The New American Reality: Who We Are, How We Got There, Where We Are Going. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  68. Feagin, J.R. (2001). Racist America: Roots, Current Realities and Future Reparations. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Feagin, J.R. and M.P. Sikes. (1994). Living with Racism: The Black Middle-Class Experience. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  70. Fergus, E. (2016). Understanding Latino Student Racial and Ethnic Identification: Theories of Race and Ethnicity. Theory Into Practice, 55 (1), 20–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ferrante, J. and P. Brown, Jr. (1999). Classifying People by Race. In F.L. Pincus and H.J. Ehrlich (eds.), Race and Ethnic Conflict: Contending Views on Prejudice, Discrimination, and Ethnoviolence (Pp. 14–23). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  72. FitzGerald, D. (2012). A Comparativist Manifesto for International Migration Studies. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35 (10), 1725–1740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Fossett, M. (2011). Generative Models of Segregation: Investigating Model-Generated Patterns of Residential Segregation by Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status. The Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 35 (1–3), 114–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fossett, M. (2017). New Methods for Measuring and Analyzing Segregation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Fossett, M.A. and K.J. Kiecolt. (1989). The Relative Size of Minority Populations and White Racial Attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 70, 820–835.Google Scholar
  76. Fossett, M.A. and M.T. Siebert. (1997). Long Time Coming: Racial Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan South, 1940-1990. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  77. Frankenberg, R. (1993). White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Frazier, E.F. (1939). The Negro Family in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  79. Frazier, E.F. (1949). The Negro in the United States. New York, NY: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Frazier, E.F. (1957). Black Bourgeoisie: The Rise of a New Middle Class in the United States. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  81. Frey, W. (2014). Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Dynamics Are Remaking America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  82. Frisbie, W.P. and L. Neidert. (1977). Inequality and the Relative Group Size of Minority Populations: A Comparative Analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 1007–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Furtado, D. and N. Theodoropoulos. (2011). Interethnic Marriage: A Choice between Ethnic and Educational Similarities. Journal of Population Economics, 24 (4), 1257–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gans, H. (1979). Symbolic Ethnicity: The Future of Ethnic Groups and Cultures in America. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Garner, S. and C. Gilligan. (2015). The Ethnic Demography of Ireland. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 501–536). New York, NY: Springer Publications.Google Scholar
  86. Gladney, D.C. (1994). Representing Nationality in China: Refiguring Majority/Minority Identities. The Journal of Asian Studies, 53, 92–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Glazer, N. (2002). Do We Need the Census Race Question? The Public Interest, 149, 21–31.Google Scholar
  88. Glenn, E. (ed.). (2009). Shades of Difference: Why Skin Color Matters. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Gordon, M. (1964). Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion and National Origins. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Griffith, F.M. and T. Zuberi. (2015). Demography of Race and Ethnicity in South Africa. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 387–417). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Guo, G., Y. Fu, H. Lee, T. Cai, Y. Li, and K.M. Harris. (2014). Recognizing a Small Amount of Superficial Genetic Differences Across African, European and Asian Americans Helps Understand Social Construction of Race. Demography, 51 (6), 2337–2342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hahn, R.A., B.I. Truman, and N.D. Barker. (1996). Identifying Ancestry: The Reliability of Ancestral Identification in the United States by Self, Proxy, Interviewer, and Funeral Director. Epidemiology, 7 (1), 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hall, R. (1994). The ‘Bleaching Syndrome’: Implications of Light Skin for Hispanic American Assimilation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 16, 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hall, R. (1995). The Bleaching Syndrome: African Americans’ Response to Cultural Domination vis-à-vis Skin Color. Journal of Black Studies, 26, 172–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Haller, W., A. Portes, and S.M. Lynch. (2011). Dreams Fulfilled, Dreams Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation. Social Forces, 89 (3), 733–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hamilton, D. (2000). Issues Concerning Discrimination and Measurement of Discrimination in U.S. Labor Markets. African American Research Perspectives, 6, 98–111.Google Scholar
  97. Harris, D.R. and J.J. Sim. (2002). Who is Multiracial? Assessing the Complexity of Lived Race. American Sociological Review, 67 (4), 614–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hauser, P.M. and O.D. Duncan. (1959). The Study of Population: An Inventory and Appraisal. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  99. Herring, C. (1989). Convergence, Polarization, or What?: Racially Based Changes in Attitudes and Outlooks, 1964-1984. The Sociological Quarterly, 30, 27–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hill, M.E. (2002). Skin Color and the Perception of Attractiveness among African Americans: Does Gender Make a Difference? Social Psychology Quarterly, 65, 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hing, B.O. (1993). Beyond the Rhetoric of Assimilation and Cultural Pluralism: Addressing the Tension of Separatism and Conflict in an Immigration-Driven Multiracial Society. California Law Review 81, 63.Google Scholar
  102. Hirschman, C. (2002). Race and Ethnic Population Projections: A Critical Evaluation of Their Content and Meaning. In N.A. Denton and S.E. Tolnay (eds.), American Diversity: A Demographic Challenge for the Twenty-First Century (Pp. 51–72). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  103. Hochschild, J.L., V.M. Weaver, and T.R. Burch. (2012). Creating a New Racial Order: How Immigration, Multiracialism, Genomics, and the Young Can Remake Race in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Horton, H.D. (1995). Population Change and the Employment Status of College Educated Blacks. Research in Race and Ethnic Relations, 8, 99–114.Google Scholar
  105. Horton, H.D. (1999). Critical Demography: The Paradigm of the Future? Sociological Forum, 14, 363–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Horton, H.D. (2002). Rethinking American Diversity: Conceptual and Theoretical Challenges for Racial and Ethnic Demography. In N.A. Denton and S.E. Tolnay (eds.), American Diversity: A Demographic Challenge for the Twenty-First Century (Pp. 261–278). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  107. Hout, M. (1984). Occupational Mobility of Black Men: 1962 to 1973. American Sociological Review, 49, 308–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hovsepian, M. (2015). Demography of Race and Ethnicity in Palestine. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 339–352). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hugo, G. (2015). Demography of Race and Ethnicity in Indonesia. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 259–280). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hummer, R.A. (1996). Black-White Differences in Health and Morality: A Review and Conceptual Model. The Sociological Quarterly, 37, 105–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hummer, R.A., D.A. Powers, S.G. Pullum, G.L. Gossman, and W.P. Frisbie. (2007). Paradox Found (Again): Infant Mortality among the Mexican-Origin Population in the United States. Demography, 44 (3), 441–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hwang, S.-S., R. Saenz, and B.E. Aguirre. (1997). Structural and Assimilationist Explanations of Asian American Intermarriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59 (3), 758–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Iceland, J., D.H. Weinberg, and E. Steinmetz. (2002). Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in the United States: 1980-2000. Census 2000 Special Reports CENSR-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  114. Ignatiev, N. (1995). How the Irish Became White. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  115. Jensen, R. (1998). White Privilege Shapes the U.S. Baltimore Sun, (July 19), 4C.Google Scholar
  116. Jiménez, T.R. (2010a). Affiliative Ethnic Identity: a More Elastic Link Between Ethnic Ancestry and Culture. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33 (10), 1756–1775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Jiménez, T.R. (2010b). Replenished Ethnicity: Mexican Americans, Immigration, and Identity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  118. Jiménez, T.R. (2017). The Other Side of Assimilation: How Immigrants are Changing American Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  119. Jiménez, T.R., J. Park, and J. Pedroza. (2017). The New Third Generation: Post‐1965 Immigration and the Next Chapter in the Long Story of Assimilation. International Migration Review, 51, 1–40, available at https://sociology.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/jimenezparkpedrozaimr.pdf
  120. Johnson, K.M. (2016). U.S. Births Remain Low as the Great Recession Wanes. National Fact Sheet #34. Durham, NH: Carsey School of Public Policy, University of New Hampshire. Available at https://carsey.unh.edu/publication/us-births-low. Accessed 05/05/2018.
  121. Johnson, K.M. (2017a). 2.1 Million More Childless Women Than Anticipated. Carsey Data Snapshot. Durham, NH: Carsey School of Public Policy, University of New Hampshire. Available at https://scholars.unh.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1326&context=carsey. Accessed 05/10/2018.
  122. Johnson, K.M. (2017b). New Data Show U.S. Birth Rate Hits Record Low. Carsey Data Snapshot. Durham, NH: Carsey School of Public Policy, University of New Hampshire. Available at https://scholars.unh.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1309&context=carsey. Accessed 05/10/2018.
  123. Kalmijn, M. (1998). Intermarriage and Homogamy: Causes, Patterns, Trends. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 395–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kearns, A., E. Whitley, M. Egan, C. Tabbner, and C. Tannahill. (2017). Healthy Migrants in an Unhealthy City? The Effects of Time on the Health of Migrants Living in Deprived Areas of Glasgow. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 18 (3), 675–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Keith, V.M. and C. Herring. (1991). Skin Tone and Stratification in the Black Community. American Journal of Sociology, 97 (3), 760–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Khan, A. (1995). Who Are the Mongols? State, Ethnicity, and the Politics of Representation in the PRC. In M.J. Brown (editor), Negotiating Ethnicities in China and Taiwan (Pp. 125–159). Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  127. Killingsworth, M.R. (1993). Analyzing Employment Discrimination: From the Seminar Room to the Courtroom. AEA Papers and Proceedings, (May). Google Scholar
  128. Klonoff, E.A. and H. Landrine. (2000). Is Skin Color a Marker for Racial Discrimination? Explaining the Skin Color-Hypertension Relationship. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23 (4), 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kramer, K.Z., L.L. Myhra, V.S. Zuiker, and J.W. Bauer. (2016). Comparison of Poverty and Income Disparity of Single Mothers and Fathers Across Three Decades: 1990-2010. Gender Issues, 33 (1), 22–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Landale, N.S. and R.S. Oropesa. (2002). White, Black, or Puerto Rican? Racial Self-Identification among Mainland and Island Puerto Ricans. Social Forces, 81, 231–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Landale, N.S., R.S. Oropesa, and D. Llanes. (1998). Schooling, Work, and Idleness among Mexican and Non-Latino White Adolescents. Social Science Research, 27, 457–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Landsman, N. and W. Katkin. (1998). Introduction: The Construction of American Pluralism. In W.F. Katkin, N. Landsman, and A. Tyree (eds), Beyond Pluralism: The Conception of Groups and Group Identities in America (Pp. 1–10). Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  133. Lariscy, J.T., C. Nau, G. Firebaugh, and R.A. Hummer. (2016). Hispanic-White Differences in Lifespan Variability in the United States. Demography, 53, 215–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lee, J. and F. Bean. (2010). The Diversity Paradox: Immigration and the Color Line in Twenty-First Century America. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  135. Lee, J. and F. Bean. (2016). Are We ‘Postracial’? Intermarriage, Multiracial Identification, and Changing Color Lines. In M. Zhou and A. Ocampo (editors). Contemporary Asian America: A Multidisciplinary Reader (Pp. 391–403). New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Lee, J.C. and S. Kye. (2016). Racialized Assimilation of Asian Americans. Annual Review of Sociology, 42, 253–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lewis, R., Jr., and J. Ford-Robertson. (2010). Understanding the Occurrence of Interracial Marriage in the United States through Differential Assimilation. Journal of Black Studies, 41 (2), 405–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lichter, D. (2013). Integration or Fragmentation? Racial Diversity and the American Future. Demography, 50, 359–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lichter, D.T., K.M. Johnson, R.N. Turner, and A. Churilla. (2012). Hispanic Assimilation and Fertility in New US Destinations. International Migration Review, 46 (4), 767–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Lichter, D.T., D. Parisi, M.C. Taquino, and S.M. Grice. (2010). Residential Segregation in New Hispanic Destinations: Cities, Suburbs, and Rural Communities Compared. Social Science Research, 39 (2), 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Liebler, C., S.E. Porter, L.E. Fernandez, J.M. Noon, and S.R. Ennis. (2017). America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census. Demography, 54 (1), 259–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. López, N., C. Erwin, M. Binder, and M.J. Chavez. (2018). Making the Invisible Visible: Advancing Quantitative Methods in Higher Education using Critical Race Theory and Intersectionality. Race Ethnicity and Education, 21 (2), 180–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Markides, K.S. and J. Coreil. (1986). The Health of Hispanics in the Southwestern United States: An Epidemiological Paradox. Public Health Reports, 101, 253–265.Google Scholar
  144. Martin, J.A., B.E. Hamilton, M.J.K. Osterman, A.K. Driscoll, and P. Drake. (2018). Births: Final Data for 2016. National Vital Statistics Reports, Vo. 67, No. 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_01.pdf [accessed 07/24/2018].
  145. Martin, L.L. (2010). Strategic Assimilation or Creation of Symbolic Blackness: Middle-class Blacks in Suburban Contexts. Journal of African American Studies, 14 (2), 234–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Massey, D.S. (2012). Reflections on the Dimensions of Segregation. Social Forces, 91 (1), 39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Massey, D.S. and N.A. Denton. (1988). The Dimensions of Residential Segregation. Social Forces, 67, 281–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Massey, D.S. and N.A. Denton. (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  149. Massey, D.S., M.J. White, and V.-C. Phua. (1996). The Dimensions of Segregation Revisited. Sociological Methods and Research, 25, 172–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. McCall, L. (2005). The Complexity of Intersectionality. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 30 (3), 1771–1800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. McFalls, J.A., Jr. (1998). Population: A Lively Introduction. Population Bulletin, 53 (3), 1–40.Google Scholar
  152. McLemore, S.D. and H.D. Romo. (1998). Racial and Ethnic Relations in America. 5th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  153. Morawska, E. (2014). Immigrant Transnationalism and Assimilation: A Variety of Combinations and the Analytic Strategy it Suggests. In C. Joppke and E. Morawska (eds.), Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States (Pp. 133–176). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Morning, A. (2014). And You Thought We Had Moved Beyond All That: Biological Race Returns to the Social Sciences. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37 (10), 1676–1685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Morris, A. (1996). What’s Race Got to Do with It?” Contemporary Sociology, 25, 309–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Mortelmans, D., P. Meier, and C. Defever. (2016). Intersectionality in Young Adults’ Households: A Quantitative Perspective. in Dimitri Mortelmans, Koenraad Matthijs, Elisabeth Alofs, and Barbara Segaert (editors), Challenging Family Dynamics and Demographic Evolution: The Family Kaleidoscope (Pp. 81–101). Northhampton, MA: Elgar Publishing LimitedGoogle Scholar
  157. Murguia, E. and R. Saenz. (2004). An Analysis of the Latin Americanization of Race in the United States: A Reconnaissance of Color Stratification among Mexicans. Race & Society, 5, 85–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Murguia, E. and E.E. Telles. (1996). Phenotype and Schooling among Mexican Americans. Sociology of Education, 69, 276–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Murphy, S.L., J. Xu, K.D. Kochanek, S.C. Curtin, and E. Arias. (2017). Deaths: Final Data for 2015. National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 66, No. 6. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr66/nvsr66_06.pdf [accessed 07/24/2018].
  160. Myers, D. and M. Levy. (2018). Racial Population Projections and Reactions to Alternative News Accounts of Growing Diversity. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 677 (May), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Navarrete, F. (2016). México Racista: Una Denuncia. Mexico City: Grijalbo.Google Scholar
  162. Nelson, C. and M. Tienda. (1985). The Structuring of Hispanic Ethnicity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 8, 49–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Obach, B.K. (1999). Demonstrating the Social Construction of Race. Teaching Sociology, 27, 252–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Office of Management and Budget. (1997). Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget.Google Scholar
  165. Office of Management and Budget. (2000). Provision Guidance on the Implementation of the 1997 Standards for Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget.Google Scholar
  166. Oliver, M.L. and T.M. Shapiro. (1995). Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  167. Omi, M. and H. Winant. (1994). Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  168. Painter, M.A. and Z. Qian. (2016). Wealth Inequality Among Immigrants: Consistent Racial/Ethnic Inequality in the United States. Population Research and Policy Review, 35 (2), 147–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Palloni, Alberto and E. Arias. (2004). Paradox Lost: Explaining the Hispanic Adult Mortality Advantage. Demography, 41 (3), 385–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Parisi, D., D.T. Lichter, and M.C. Taquino. (2011). Multi-Scale Residential Segregation: Black Exceptionalism and America's Changing Color Line. Social Forces, 89 (3), 829–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Park, J., and J. Iceland. (2011). Residential Segregation in Metropolitan Established Immigrant Gateways and New Destinations, 1990–2000. Social Science Research, 40 (3), 811–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Park, R.E. (1950). Race and Culture. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  173. Parrado, E.A., and C.A. Flippen. (2012). Hispanic Fertility, Immigration, and Race in the Twenty-First Century. Race and Social Problems, 4 (1), 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Patel, K.V., K. Eschbach, L.A. Ray, and K.S. Markides. (2004). Evaluation of Mortality Data for Older Mexican Americans: Implications for the Hispanic Paradox. American Journal of Epidemiology, 159 (7), 707–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Pattillo, M. (1999). Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril among the Black Middle Class. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  176. Perlmann, J. (2002). Census Bureau Long-Term Racial Projections: Interpreting Their Results and Seeking Their Rationale. In J. Perlmann and M. Waters (eds.). The New Race Question: How the Census Counts Multiracial Individuals (Pp. 215–226). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  177. Perlmann, J. and M. Waters (eds.). (2002). The New Race Question: How the Census Counts Multiracial Individuals. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  178. Porter, S.R. and C.M. Snipp. (2018). Measuring Hispanic Origin: Reflections on Hispanic Race Reporting. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 677 (May), 140–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Portes, A. (1995). Children of Immigrants: Segmented Assimilation and Its Determinants. In A. Portes (ed.), The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship (Pp. 248–80). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  180. Portes, A. and D. MacLeod. (1996). Educational Progress of Children of Immigrants: The Role of Class, Ethnicity, and School Context. Sociology of Education, 69, 255–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Portes, A. and R.G. Rumbaut. (1996). Immigrant America: A Portrait. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  182. Portes, A. and M. Zhou. (1993). The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530 (Nov.), 74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Poston, D.L., Jr. (1992). China in 1990. In D.L. Poston, Jr. and D. Yaukey (eds). The Population of Modern China (Pp. 699–718). New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  184. Poston, D.L., Jr. and D. Alvirez. (1973). On the Cost of Being a Mexican American Worker. Social Science Quarterly, 53, 697–709.Google Scholar
  185. Poston, D.L., Jr., D. Alvirez, and M. Tienda. (1976). Earnings Differences between Anglo and Mexican American Male Workers in 1960 and 1970: Changes in the ‘Cost’ of Being Mexican American. Social Science Quarterly, 57, 618-631.Google Scholar
  186. Poston, D.L., Jr. and R. Sáenz. (2017). Majority to Minority: The Declining U.S. White Population. N-IUSSP, IUSSP’s Online News Magazine (11 Sept.), available at http://www.niussp.org/article/majority-minority-declining-u-s-white-population/ [accessed on 09/01/18].
  187. Poston, D.L., Jr. Q. Xiong, Y. Chang, X. Deng, D. Yin, M. Venegas, and L. He. (2015). The Social Demography of China’s Minority Nationalities. in R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 239-256). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Prewitt, K. (2013). What Is "Your" Race?: The Census and Our Flawed Efforts to Classify Americans. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Prewitt, K. (2018). The Census Race Classification: Is It Doing Its Job? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 677 (May), 8–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Qian, Z., D.T. Lichter, and D. Tumin. (2018). Divergent Pathways to Assimilation? Local Marriage Markets and Intermarriage among U.S. Hispanics Journal of Marriage and Family, 80 (1), 271-288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Reed, H.E. and B.U. Mberu. (2015). Ethnicity, Religion, and Demographic Behavior in Nigeria. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 419–454). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Restifo, S., V.J. Roscigno, and Z. Qian. (2013). Segmented Assimilation, Split Labor Markets, and Racial/Ethnic Inequality: The Case of Early-Twentieth-Century New York. American Sociological Review, 78 (5), 897–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Rodriguez, C.E. (2000). Changing Race: Latinos, the Census, and the History of Ethnicity in the United States. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  194. Roth, W.D. (2018). Establishing the Denominator: The Challenges of Measuring Multiracial, Hispanic, and Native American Populations. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 677 (May), 48–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Ruggles, S., S. Flood, R. Goeken, J. Grover, E. Meyer, J. Pacas, and M. (2018). Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 8.0 [database]. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, 2018.Google Scholar
  196. Ruiz, J.M., H.A. Hamann, M.R. Mehl, and M.-F. O’Connor. (2016). The Hispanic Health Paradox: From Epidemiological Phenomenon to Contribution Opportunities for Psychological Science. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19 (4), 462–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Ryabov, I. (2018). How Much Does Physical Attractiveness Matter for Blacks? Linking Skin Color, Physical Attractiveness, and Black Status Attainment. Race and Social Problems, (Aug.), 1–12, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12552-018-9245-1
  198. Saenz, R. (1997). Ethnic Concentration and Chicano Poverty: A Comparative Approach. Social Science Research, 26, 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Sáenz, R. (2010). Latina/os, Whites, and the Shifting Demography of Arizona. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. Available at http://www.prb.org/Articles/2010/usarizonaLatina/os.aspx [accessed 04/24/2014].
  200. Sáenz, R. (2015a). A Transformation in Mexican Migration to the United States.” Carsey Research National Issue Brief #86. Available at http://scholars.unh.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1246&context=carsey. Accessed 09/06/2018.
  201. Sáenz, R. (2015b). “The Demography of the Elderly in the Americas: The Case of the United States and Mexico.” In W.A. Vega, K.S. Markides, J.L. Angel, and F.M. Torres-Gil (ed.), Challenges of Latino Aging in the Americas (Pp. 197–223). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  202. Saenz, R. and B.E. Aguirre. (1991). The Dynamics of Mexican Ethnic Identity. Ethnic Groups, 9, 17–32.Google Scholar
  203. Sáenz, R. and K. M. Douglas. (2015). A Call for the Racialization of Immigration Studies: On the Transition of Ethnic Immigrants to Racialized Immigrants. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 1 (1), 166–180.Google Scholar
  204. Sáenz, R., D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.). (2015a). The International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  205. Sáenz, R., D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.). (2015b). Introduction: A Framework for Understanding the Race and Ethnic Transition. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 3–20). New York, NY: Springer Publications.Google Scholar
  206. Saenz, R., S.-S. Hwang, and B.E. Aguirre. (1994). In Search of Asian War Brides. Demography, 31 (3), 549–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Sáenz, R. and K.M. Johnson. (2018). White Deaths Exceed Births in a Majority of U.S. States. Applied Population Lab Research Brief (June 18). Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison. Available at https://apl.wisc.edu/data-briefs/natural-decrease-18. Accessed 09/06/2018.
  208. Saenz, R. and M.C. Morales. (2005). Demography of Race and Ethnicity. In D.L. Poston, Jr. and M. Micklin (eds.), The Handbook of Population (Pp. 169–208). New York, NY: Klewer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  209. Sáenz, R. and M.C. Morales (2015). Latinos in the United States: Diversity and Change. Cambridge, UK: Polity.Google Scholar
  210. Saenz, R. and T. Morales. (2012). The Latino Paradox. In R.R Verdugo (ed.), The Demography of the Hispanic Population: Selected Essays (Pp. 47–73). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  211. Sakamoto, A., C.R. Tamborini, and C.H. Kim. (2018). Long-Term Earnings Differentials Between African American and White Men by Educational Level. Population Research and Policy Review, 37 (1), 91–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Sakamoto, A. and J.M. Tzeng. (1999). A Fifty-Year Perspective on the Declining Significance of Race in the Occupational Attainment of White and Black Men. Sociological Perspectives, 42, 157–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Sakamoto, A., H.-H. Wu, and J.M. Tzeng. (2000). The Declining Significance of Race Among American Men During the Latter Half of the 20th Century. Demography, 37, 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Schachter, A. (2016). From “Different” to “Similar” an Experimental Approach to Understanding Assimilation. American Sociological Review, 81 (5), 981–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Schafft, K.A. and L.J. Kulcsár. (2015). Demography of Race and Ethnicity in Hungary. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 553–573). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Shiao, J.L., T.Bode, A.Beyer, and D. Selvig. (2012). The Genomic Challenge to the Social Construction of Race. Sociological Theory, 30 (2), 67–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Shulman, S. (1989). A Critique of the Declining Discrimination Hypothesis. In S. Shulman and W. Darity, Jr. (eds). The Question of Discrimination: Racial Inequality in the U.S. Labor Market (Pp. 126–152). Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  218. Simó, C. and S. Méndez. (2014). Testing the Effect of the Epidemiological Paradox: Birth Weight of Newborns of Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Mothers in the Region of Valencia, Spain. Journal of Biosocial Science, 46 (5), 635–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Smee, B. (2018). Alarm Raised Over Huge Number of Indigenous Children Without Birth Certificates. The Guardian, (Jun. 18). Available at https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/jun/19/queensland-indigenous-children-no-birth-certificate. Accessed 08/30/2018.
  220. Snipp, C.M. (1997). Some Observations about Racial Boundaries and the Experiences of American Indians. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20, 667–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Snipp, C.M. (1989). American Indians: The First of this Land. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  222. Snipp, C.M. (2003). Racial Measurement in the American Census: Past Practices and Implications for the Future. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 563–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Spickard, P.R. (1992). The Illogic of American Racial Categories. In M.P.P. Root (ed.), Racially Mixed People in America (Pp. 12–23). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  224. Song, M. (2015). What Constitutes Intermarriage for Multiracial People in Britain? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 662, 94–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Spoorenberg, T. (2017). After Fertility’s Nadir? Ethnic Differentials in Parity-Specific Behaviours in Kyrgyzstan. Journal of Biosocial Science, 49 (Supplement S1, Nov.), S62–S73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Sullivan, T.A., F.P. Gillespie, M. Hout, and R.G. Rogers. (1984). Alternative Estimates of Mexican American Mortality in Texas, 1980. Social Science Quarterly, 65, 609–617.Google Scholar
  227. Swanson, L.E., R.P. Harris, J.R. Skees, and L. Williamson. (1994). African Americans in Southern Rural Regions: The Importance of Legacy. Review of Black Political Economy, 22, 109–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Syse, A., B.H. Strand, O. Naess; O.A. Steingrímsdóttir, B.N. Kumar. (2016). Differences in All-Cause Mortality: A Comparison between Immigrants and the Host Population in Norway 1990-2012. Demographic Research, 34 (Jan.-Jun.), 615–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Teachman, J.D., K. Paasch, and K.P. Carver. (1993). “Thirty Years of Demography.” Demography, 30 (4), 523–532.Google Scholar
  230. Telles, E. (2015). Demography of Race in Brazil. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 151-167). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Telles, E.E. and E. Murguia. (1990). Phenotypic Discrimination and Income Differences among Mexican Americans. Social Science Quarterly, 71, 682–696.Google Scholar
  232. Tienda, M. and D.T. Lii. (1987). Minority Concentration and Earnings Inequality: Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians Compared. American Journal of Sociology, 93, 141–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Turra, C.M. and I.T. Elo. (2008). The Impact of Salmon Bias on the Hispanic Mortality Advantage: New Evidence from Social Security Data. Population Research and Policy Review, 27 (5), 515–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Uhlmann, E., N. Dasgupta, A. Elguenta, A.G. Greenwald, and J. Swanson. (2002). Subgroup Prejudice Based on Skin Color among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America. Social Cognition, 20, 198–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017. Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=PEP_2017_PEPASR6H&prodType=table. Accessed 09/06/2018.
  236. van den Oord, E.J.C.G. and D.C. Rowe. (2000). Racial Differences in Birth Health Risk: A Quantitative Genetic Approach. Demography, 37 (3), 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Valdez, Z. and T. Golash-Boza. (2017). US Racial and Ethnic Relations in the Twenty-First Century. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40 (13), 2181–2209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Vespa, J., D.M. Armstrong, and L. Medina. (2018). Demographic Turning Points for the United States: Population Projections for 2020 to 2060. Current Population Reports, P25-1144. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Available at https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/demo/P25_1144.pdf. Accessed 08/17/2018.
  239. Walther, C.S., D.G. Embrick, B.K. Thakore, and K. Henricks. (2015). Race and Ethnicity in Contemporary Vietnam. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 281–302). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Warren, J.W. and F.W. Twine. (1997). White Americans, the New Minority? Non-Blacks and the Ever-Expanding Boundaries of Whiteness. Journal of Black Studies, 28, 200–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Waters, M. (1990). Ethnic Options. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  242. Waters, M. (1999). Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  243. Waters, M. (2002). The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity: Some Examples from Demography. In N.A. Denton and S.E. Tolnay (eds.), American Diversity: A Demographic Challenge for the Twenty-First Century (Pp. 25–49). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  244. Weeks, J.R. (2002). Population: An Introduction to Concepts and Issues. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  245. Weiner, M.F. (2015). The Demography of Race and Ethnicity in The Netherlands: An Ambiguous History of Tolerance and Conflict. In R. Saenz, D.G. Embrick, and N. Rodríguez (eds.), International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity (Pp. 575–596). New York, NY: Springer Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Willie, C.V. (1978). The Inclining Significance of Race. Society, 15 (July/Aug.), 12–15.Google Scholar
  247. Willie, C.V. (1989). The Caste and Class Controversy on Race and Poverty: Round Two of the Willie/Wilson Debate. 2nd ed. Dix Hills, NY: General Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  248. Wilson, G. (2000). Income in Upper-Tier Occupations among Males over the First Decade of the Work-Career: Is Race Declining in Its Significance. National Journal of Sociology, 12, 1051–1027.Google Scholar
  249. Wilson, Tom. (2016). The Future of Australia’s Indigenous Population, 2011-61. Population Studies, 70 (3), 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wilson, W.J. (1978). The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  251. Wilson, W.J. (1996). When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York, NY: Knopf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Wu, Z., C.M. Schimmele, and F. Hou. (2015). Group Differences in Intermarriage with Whites between Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics: The Effects of Assimilation and Structural Constraints. Journal of Social Issues, 71 (4), 733–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Yinger, J.M. (1994). Ethnicity: Source of Strength? Source of Conflict? New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  254. Zhang T.L. (1984). Growth of China's minority population. Beijing Review, 27 (June 18), 25–30.Google Scholar
  255. Zuberi, T. (2001a). One Step Back in Understanding Racial Differences in Birth Weight. Demography, 38 (4), 569–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Zuberi, T. (2001b). Thicker than Blood: How Racial Statistics Lie. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DemographyUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyUniversity of Texas at El PasoEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations