Advertisement

Building a Welfare System with Chinese Characteristics: From a Residual Type to Moderate Universalism

Chapter
Part of the International Perspectives on Aging book series (Int. Perspect. Aging, volume 20)

Abstract

The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) states: “The principal contradiction in our society in the new era has been transformed into the contradiction between the people’s growing need for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development.” The key measure to solve this contradiction is to change China’s welfare system from a residual type to one that is based on the principle of moderate universalism. The current social welfare system of China is mainly social security, which focuses on social insurances and social assistance. The system has certain problems such as narrow coverage, gaps between the rich and the poor, and between regions, which cannot meet the growing needs of the people. A moderate universal welfare system requires, to meet the needs of the people, extending the coverage of social security from only a portion of the population to all citizens; extending service objectives from only disadvantaged groups to all the people; in welfare programs, extending from economic security to provision of basic social services; and in terms of quality of life, the basic income security should be extended to people for enjoying a decent and dignified life.

Keywords

Welfare system Chinese characteristics Moderate universalism Residual welfare Socialism 

Bibliography

Chinese

  1. All-China Women Federation. (2013). A report on the situation of left behind rural children migrating children in urban and rural areas. See Xinhuanet. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2013-05/10/c_115720450.htm
  2. Cai, F. (2017, June 23). When the income increases, the redistribution should also increase. WeChat of Shanghai Research Institute.Google Scholar
  3. China Research Center on Aging. (2014). A report of aging industry development in China. Social Sciences Literature Publishing House. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2013-05/10/c_115720450.htm
  4. Dou, Y. (2007, October 23). The change of social welfare from residual type to moderate universalism. Public Welfare News.Google Scholar
  5. Gao, P. (2015, December 12). China must levy inheritance and gift tax as new categories of taxes. China News. Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/cj/2015/12-27/7689857.shtml
  6. Hill, M. (2003). Understanding social policy. Beijing: The Commercial Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ministry of Civil Affairs. (2013). A national conference on the construction of social service system for elderly in Wulanchabu, Inner Mongolia Autonomous region, Aug. 19. Website of the Ministry of Civil Affairs.Google Scholar
  8. National Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Statistical bulletin on human resources and social security development, 2016.Google Scholar
  9. Pan, Y. (2014). Rural welfare in China. Social Sciences Literature Publishing House.Google Scholar
  10. Pan, Y., Sui, Y., & Chen, S. (2017). Building comprehensive social service system for the elderly in the community with Chinese Characteristics. Population and Society, 2, 30–38, 58.Google Scholar
  11. Ping, H. (2016). Persist in people as the hosts and the main body, realise the dream of China. The red flag manuscript, 24th issue.Google Scholar
  12. Saich, A. (2012). China’s social welfare policy: Towards social citizenship. Journal of Central China Normal University (Humanities and Social Sciences Edition, No. 4).Google Scholar
  13. Taylor, I. (2017). Class, culture and inequality in the neoliberal age. Foreign Theories Trend, No. 11.Google Scholar
  14. The National Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Statistical Bureau issued a national survey report for migrant workers in 2014. China government network. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2015-04/29/content_2854930.htm
  15. The National Bureau of Statistics. (2015). Statistics bulletin on the development of health and family planning in China, 2015.Google Scholar
  16. The National Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Statistics bulletin of the national economic and social development of People’s Republic of China, 2016.Google Scholar
  17. Xi Jinping. (2016, April 20). Reform towards social equity and justice. Official WebChat of Kunlun institute.Google Scholar
  18. Xi Jinping. (2017, October 25). Speech at the first plenary session of the 19th Central Committee.Google Scholar
  19. Xinhua News Agency. (2007). The proposal of a well-off society in Seventeenth National Congress, 2 November. Xinhuanet. Retrieved from http://www.zj.xinhuanet.com/2007special/2007-11/07/content_11608188.htm

English

  1. Anttonen, A., Häikiö, L., & Stefȧnsson, K. (Eds.). (2012). Welfare state, universalism and diversity. London: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  2. Bäckman, G. (1991). The creation and development of social welfare in the Nordic countries. Tampere: Tampere University.Google Scholar
  3. Commission on Social Justice. (2000). What is social justice? In C. Pierson & F. G. Castles (Eds.), The welfare state reader (pp. 51–62). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ginsburg, N. (1993). Sweden: “The social-democratic case”. In A. Cochrane & J. Clarke (Eds.), Comparing welfare state, Britain in international context. The Open University.Google Scholar
  5. Kidal, N., & Kuhnle, S. (2005). The Nordic welfare model and the idea of universalism. In N. Kidal & S. Kuhnle (Eds.), Normative foundations of welfare state: The Nordic experience (pp. 13–33). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Korpi, W. (1983). The democratic class struggle. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Titmuss, R. M. (1958). Essay on ‘the welfare state’. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  8. Titmuss, R. M. (1968). Commitment to welfare. London: Allen & Unwin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Wilensky, H. L., & Lebeaux, C. N. (1958). Industrial society and social welfare. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations