Advertisement

Social Organisations and Old Age Services in Urban Communities in China: Stabilising Networks?

  • Bingqin Li
  • Lijie Fang
  • Jing Wang
  • Bo Hu
Chapter
Part of the International Perspectives on Aging book series (Int. Perspect. Aging, volume 20)

Abstract

In recent years, China has experienced rapidly increasing demand for old age care and relevant services for elderly people, as a result of the rapid growth in China’s older population (Peng, 2013). According to the 2015 Social Service Development Statistical Communique (Ministry of Civil Affairs, 2016), by the end of 2015, China’s population aged 60 and over had reached 222 million—equivalent to 16.1% of the total population. Further, the population aged 65 and over had reached 143.86 million—about 10.5% of the total population. According to an estimate by Hu and Yang (2012), the actual old age dependency ratio reached 5:1 by 2012, which is a greater level of dependency than the 8:1 estimated by the official statistics. This ratio will reach 3.5:1 by 2020. According to the estimate of the 2013 Human Development Report of China (UNDP China, 2013a, 2013b), by the end of 2011, some 9.1% of Chinese people were older than 65. According to this report’s estimate, this figure will rise to 18.2% by 2030—higher than in most industrialised countries. In addition to the demographic changes, China’s old age care services are challenged by the country’s changing social and economic situations. As the overall income increases, older people’s lifestyles and demand for cultural activities are also different to those of the past. Older people have begun to demand more convenient, more varied and higher quality services and facilities. These changes have created serious challenges for the existing old age care system.

References

  1. Aldrich, D. P. (2016). Site fights: Divisive facilities and civil society in Japan and the West. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Antrobus, P. (1987). Funding for NGOs: Issues and options. World Development, 15, 95–102.Google Scholar
  3. Bian, F., Logan, J. R., & Bian, Y. (1998). Intergenerational relations in urban China: Proximity, contact, and help to parents. Demography, 35(1), 115–124.Google Scholar
  4. Boychuk, T. (2007). Big society, small government. Macalester International, 18(1), 17.Google Scholar
  5. Buffel, T., & Phillipson, C. (2012). Ageing in urban environments: Developing ‘age-friendly’ cities. Critical Social Policy, 32(4), 597–617.Google Scholar
  6. Everingham, J. A., Petriwskyj, A., Warburton, J., Cuthill, M., & Bartlett, H. (2009). Information provision for an age-friendly community. Ageing International, 34(1–2), 79–98.Google Scholar
  7. Feng, Z., Liu, C., Guan, X., & Mor, V. (2012). China’s rapidly aging population creates policy challenges in shaping a viable long-term care system. Health Affairs, 31(12), 2764–2773.Google Scholar
  8. Fitzgerald, K. G., & Caro, F. G. (2014). An overview of age-friendly cities and communities around the world. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 26(1–2), 1–18.Google Scholar
  9. Flaherty, J. H., Liu, M. L., Ding, L., Dong, B., Ding, Q., Li, X., et al. (2007). China: The aging giant. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(8), 1295–1300.Google Scholar
  10. Gilroy, R. (2008). Places that support human flourishing: Lessons from later life. Planning Theory & Practice, 9(2), 145–163.Google Scholar
  11. Green, G. (2013). Age-friendly cities of Europe. Journal of Urban Health, 90(1), 116–128.Google Scholar
  12. hans Klijn, E. (1996). Analyzing and managing policy processes in complex networks a theoretical examination of the concept policy network and its problems. Administration & Society, 28(1), 90–119.Google Scholar
  13. He, A. J., & Huang, G. (2015). Fighting for Migrant Labour Rights in the World’s Factory: Legitimacy, resource constraints and strategies of grassroots migrant labour NGOs in South China. Journal of Contemporary China, 24(93), 471–492.Google Scholar
  14. Hean, S., & Smith, S. (2013). Interprofessional collaboration when working with older people. Caring for older people in nursing, 191.Google Scholar
  15. Hesketh, T., Lu, L., & Xing, Z. W. (2005). The effect of China’s one-child family policy after 25 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(11), 1171–1176.Google Scholar
  16. Hewitt de Alcántara, C. (1998). Uses and abuses of the concept of governance. International Social Science Journal, 50(155), 105–113.Google Scholar
  17. Howell, J. (2012). Civil society, corporatism and capitalism in China. Journal of Comparative Asian Development, 11(2), 271–297.Google Scholar
  18. Hsu, J. Y., & Hasmath, R. (2014). The local corporatist state and NGO relations in China. Journal of Contemporary China, 23(87), 516–534.Google Scholar
  19. Hu, N., & Yang, Y. (2012). The real old-age dependency ratio and the inadequacy of public pension finance in China. Journal of Population Ageing, 5(3), 193–209.Google Scholar
  20. Huang, X., Zhang, Z., & Li, Y. (2007). Community care diabetic foot (Tángniàobìng zú de shèqū hùlǐ). Journal of Practical Medical Techniques (Shíyòng yī jì zázhì), 14(21), 2959–2960.Google Scholar
  21. Huixia, Z., & Lingwei, J. (2011). Research on the governance mechanism of venture capital network. Journal on Innovation and Sustainability, 2(2). RISUS ISSN 2179-3565.Google Scholar
  22. Jing, Y., & Besharov, D. J. (2014). Collaboration among government, market, and society: Forging partnerships and encouraging competition. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(3), 835–842.Google Scholar
  23. Johansson, R., & Borell, K. (1999). Central steering and local networks: Old-age care in Sweden. Public Administration, 77(3), 585–598.Google Scholar
  24. Johansson, L., Sundström, G., & Hassing, L. B. (2003). State provision down, offspring’s up: The reverse substitution of old-age care in Sweden. Ageing and Society, 23(03), 269–280.Google Scholar
  25. Kim, S. (2015). NGOs and social protection in East Asia: Korea, Thailand and Indonesia. Asian Journal of Political Science, 23(1), 23–43.Google Scholar
  26. Kröger, T. (2011). Retuning the Nordic welfare municipality: Central regulation of social care under change in Finland. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 31(3/4), 148–159.Google Scholar
  27. Le Bihan, B., & Martin, C. (2006). A comparative case study of care systems for frail elderly people: Germany, Spain, France, Italy, United Kingdom and Sweden. Social Policy and Administration, 40(1), 26–46.Google Scholar
  28. Li, P. (2013). Reform and future social organization system in China (Wǒguó shèhuì zǔzhī tǐzhì de gǎigé hé wèilái). Society (Shèhuì), 3(1), 10.Google Scholar
  29. Li, B. (2014). Social pension unification in an urbanising China: Paths and constraints. Public Administration and Development, 34(4), 281–293.Google Scholar
  30. Li, B., Huikuri, S., Zhang, Y., & Chen, W. (2015). Motivating intersectoral collaboration with the Hygienic City Campaign in Jingchang, China. Environment and Urbanization, 27(1), 285–302.Google Scholar
  31. Li, B., & Shin, H. B. (2013). Intergenerational housing support between retired old parents and their children in urban China. Urban Studies, 50(16), 3225–3242.Google Scholar
  32. Lieberthal, K. (1995). Governing China: From revolution through reform (p. 356). New York: WW Norton.Google Scholar
  33. Liu, Z. (2006). On urban people’s commune (Chéngshì rénmín gōngshè shù lùn). Changbai Journal (Zhǎngbái xué kān), 3, 96–99.Google Scholar
  34. Liu, C. (2013). Chapter 6: Community governance and elite activism in urban China. In Elites and governance in China (p. 94).Google Scholar
  35. Liu, X., Song, Y., Wu, K., Wang, J., Li, D., & Long, Y. (2015). Understanding urban China with open data. Cities, 47, 53–61.Google Scholar
  36. Lowndes, V., & Pratchett, L. (2012). Local governance under the coalition government: Austerity, localism and the ‘Big Society’. Local Government Studies, 38(1), 21–40.Google Scholar
  37. Lui, C. W., Everingham, J. A., Warburton, J., Cuthill, M., & Bartlett, H. (2009). What makes a community age-friendly: A review of international literature. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 28(3), 116–121.Google Scholar
  38. Luo, Z. (1959). People’s commune and family Issues (Rénmín gōngshè yǔ jiātíng wèntí). Academic Monthly (Xuéshù yuèkān), 2, 25–28.Google Scholar
  39. Lv, J. (2012). A survey of institutionalised old age care services in Zhejiang Province (Zhèjiāng shěng jīgòu yǎnglǎo fúwù xiànzhuàng de diàochá yánjiū). Master Thesis.Google Scholar
  40. Madhavan, R., Koka, B. R., & Prescott, J. E. (1998). Networks in transition: How industry events (re) shape interfirm relationships. Strategic Management Journal, 19(5), 439–459.Google Scholar
  41. Mays, G. P., Halverson, P. K., & Kaluzny, A. D. (1998). Collaboration to improve community health: trends and alternative models. Joint Commission on Quality Improvement, 24(10), 518–540.Google Scholar
  42. McLeod, E., Bywaters, P., Tanner, D., & Hirsch, M. (2008). For the sake of their health: Older service users’ requirements for social care to facilitate access to social networks following hospital discharge. British Journal of Social Work, 38, 73–90.Google Scholar
  43. Ministry of Civil Affairs. (2013). 2013 Social Service Development Statistical Communique (2013 Nián shèhuì fúwù fāzhǎn tǒngjì gōngbào), Social organizations Site (Shèhuì zǔzhī wǎngzhàn). Retrieved September 14, 2016, from HTTP://www.chinanpo.gov.cn/2201/79542/yjzlkindex.html
  44. Ministry of Civil Affairs. (2015). Old age service should be primarily home-based and community based (Yǎnglǎo fúwù yè yǐ jiātíng hé shèqū yǎnglǎo wéi zhǔ). Retrieved September 15, 2016, from http://www.ailaoweb.com/News/information/2556.html
  45. Ministry of Civil Affairs. (2016). 2015 Social Service Development Statistical Communique (2015 Nián shèhuì fúwù fāzhǎn tǒngjì gōngbào). Retrieved from http://www.mca.gov.cn/article/sj/tjgb/201607/20160700001136.shtml
  46. National Health and Family Planning Commission. (2015). Chinese Family Development Report, 2015 (Zhtional jiiiona ffiion bbiion, 2015), China Population Publishing House (Zh2015), rr2015 chh015 shh.Google Scholar
  47. Ngok, K. L., & Huang, G. (2014). Policy paradigm shift and the changing role of the state: The development of social policy in China since 2003. Social Policy and Society, 13(02), 251–261.Google Scholar
  48. OXFAM. (2014). Chinese rural women in poverty reduction: Summary and outlook (Zhōngguó nóngcūn fùnǚ jiǎn pín gàikuàng jí zhǎnwàng). China Development Brief. Retrieved April 25, 2015, from HTTP://www.chinadevelopmentbrief.org.cn/news-16680.html
  49. Pei, X. (2004). The development and issues of long term care services for cities with aging population (Lǎonián xíng chéngshì chángqí zhàohù fúwù de fāzhǎn jí qí wèntí). Urban Mangement (Chéngshì guǎnlǐ), 36, 36–37.Google Scholar
  50. Pei, X. (2009). Society’s support for the aged in China: A cultural perspective. Social Sciences in China, 30(1), 149–159.Google Scholar
  51. Peng, X. (2013). China’s demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 32(2), 399–406.Google Scholar
  52. Phillipson, C. (2011). Developing age-friendly communities: New approaches to growing old in urban environments. In Handbook of sociology of aging (pp. 279–293). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  53. Plouffe, L. A., & Kalache, A. (2011). Making communities age friendly: State and municipal initiatives in Canada and other countries. Gaceta Sanitaria, 25, 131–137.Google Scholar
  54. Provan, K. G., & Kenis, P. (2008). Modes of network governance: Structure, management, and effectiveness. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(2), 229–252.Google Scholar
  55. Provan, K. G., Kenis, P., & Human, S. E. (2008). Legitimacy building in organizational networks. In Big ideas in collaborative public management (pp. 121–137).Google Scholar
  56. Provan, K. G., & Lemaire, R. H. (2012). Core concepts and key ideas for understanding public sector organizational networks: Using research to inform scholarship and practice. Public Administration Review, 72(5), 638–648.Google Scholar
  57. Rhodes, R. A. (2007). Understanding governance: Ten years on. Organization Studies, 28(8), 1243–1264.Google Scholar
  58. Sandhu, S., Bebbington, A., & Netten, A. (2006). The influence of individual characteristics in the reporting of home care services quality by service users. Research Policy and Planning, 24(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  59. Spires, A. J. (2011). Contingent symbiosis and civil society in an authoritarian state: Understanding the survival of China’s grassroots NGOs1. American Journal of Sociology, 117(1), 1–45.Google Scholar
  60. State Council. (2001). China aging development agenda during the “15th Plan” (Zhōngguó lǎolíng shìyè fāzhǎn 「shíwǔ」 jìhuà gāngyào). Retrieved April 25, 2015, from HTTP://www.people.com.cn/GB/shizheng/19/20010813/534181.html
  61. State Council (2006). Whitepaper Book of Development of Ageing Affairs in China, http://www.china.com.cn/policy/txt/2006-12/12/content_7493224.htm
  62. Steels, S. (2015). Key characteristics of age-friendly cities and communities: A review. Cities, 47, 45–52.Google Scholar
  63. Stepan, M., & Müller, A. (2012). Welfare governance in China? A conceptual discussion of governing social policies and the applicability of the concept to contemporary China. Journal of Cambridge Studies, 7(4), 54–71.Google Scholar
  64. Stern, R. E., & O’Brien, K. J. (2012). Politics at the boundary mixed signals and the Chinese State. Modern China, 38(2), 174–198.Google Scholar
  65. Swann, W. W. & J. L. Morgan (1992). Collaborating for Comprehensive Services for Young Children and their Families – The Local Interagency Coordinating Council. Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  66. Teets, J. C. (2013). Let many civil societies bloom: The rise of consultative authoritarianism in China. The China Quarterly, 213, 19–38.Google Scholar
  67. UK Urban Ageing Consortium. (2014). A research & evaluation framework for age-friendly cities. Retrieved from HTTP://www.micra.manchester.ac.uk/medialibrary/A%20Research%20and%20Evaluation%20Framework%20for%20Age-friendly%20Cities_web%20version.pdf
  68. UNDP China. (2013a). China National Human Development Report 2013—Sustainable and liveable cities: Toward ecological civilization. Beijing: UNDP.Google Scholar
  69. van Campen, C., & van Gameren, E. (2005). Eligibility for long-term care in The Netherlands: Development of a decision support system. Health and Social Care in the Community, 13(4), 287–296.Google Scholar
  70. Wang, D., & Xie, L. (2013). Chapter 5: Supply of community old age care (Dì wǔ zhāng shèqū yǎnglǎo zhàohù de gōngjǐ). In The status quo and development strategy of old age care for older people in community (Shèqū lǎonián rénkǒu yǎnglǎo zhāohū xiànzhuàng yǔ fāzhǎn duìcè) (pp. 156–157). Xiamen University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Weiner, B. J., Alexander, J. A., & Zuckerman, H. S. (2000). Strategies for effective management participation in community health partnerships. Health Care Management Review, 25(3), 48–66.Google Scholar
  72. WHO. (2014). How to make cities more age-friendly? Retrieved from HTTP://agefriendlyworld.org/en/age-friendly-in-practice/guiding-principles/
  73. World Health Organization. (2013). What is active ageing? Retrieved from HTTP://www.who.int/ageing/active_ageing/en/
  74. Xiong, Y. (2014). The construction of social welfare system and development in social governance and practices in contemporary China (Xióngyuègēn. (2014). Xīn shíqí wǒguó shèhuì fúlì zhìdù de jiàngòu yǔ shèhuì zhìlǐ shíjiàn de fǎ zhǎn). Social Work and Management (Shèhuì gōngzuò yù guǎnlǐ), 14(A01), 8–10.Google Scholar
  75. Yan, M. C., & Gao, J. G. (2007). Social engineering of community building: Examination of policy process and characteristics of community construction in China. Community Development Journal, 42(2), 222–236.Google Scholar
  76. Zhang, H. (2014). Chapter 4: Responsibilities of the government, society and households in old age care (Dì sì zhāng zhèngfǔ, shèhuì jí jiātíng zài yǎnglǎo fúwù zhōng de zérèn jièdìng). In Home based care for older people—the experience of Hangzhou (Jūjiā yǎnglǎo fúwù shūsòng jīzhì yánjiū—jīyú hángzhōu de jīngyàn) (p. 41). Zhejiang University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Zhang, Y., & Goza, F. W. (2006). Who will care for the elderly in China?: A review of the problems caused by China’s one-child policy and their potential solutions. Journal of Aging Studies, 20(2), 151–164.Google Scholar
  78. Zhong, Y. (2003). Local government and politics in China: Challenges from below. ME Sharpe.Google Scholar
  79. Zhong, Y. (2015). Local Government and Politics in China: Challenges from below: Challenges from below. Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bingqin Li
    • 1
  • Lijie Fang
    • 2
  • Jing Wang
    • 2
  • Bo Hu
    • 3
  1. 1.Social Policy Research CentreUNSWAustralia
  2. 2.Social Policy Research CentreInstitute of Sociology Chinese Academy of Social SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.London School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK

Personalised recommendations