Orbital Trauma

  • Peter Michalos


There are many etiologies of orbital trauma which require prompt evaluation, imaging, and treatment. The goals of treatment are restoring and preserving acuity, eyelid functionality, binocular vision, and lacrimal system and tear duct integrity. A multidisciplinary approach by specialists in ophthalmology, otolaryngology, neurosurgery, and plastic surgery is usually required to maximize the potential for restoration of orbital integrity and health. The use of improved microsutures, the binocular operating microscope, and micro titanium screws and plates has all contributed to vast improvements in the treatment of orbital trauma.


Orbital trauma Orbital fractures Fractures of the orbit Lacrimal canalicular disruption Orbital hemorrhage and apex syndrome 

Suggested Reading

  1. Casper DS, Trokel SL, Chi TL. Orbital disease: imaging and analysis. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers Inc.; 1993.Google Scholar
  2. Fay A, Dolman PJ. Disease and disorders of the orbit and ocular adnexa. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar
  3. Holck DEE, Ng JD. Evaluation and treatment of orbital fractures: a multidisciplinary approach. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2006.Google Scholar
  4. Nikolaenko VP, Astakhov YS, editors. Orbital fractures: a physicians manual. Berlin: Springer; 2015.Google Scholar
  5. Rootman J. Diseases of the orbit. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2002.Google Scholar
  6. Welkoborsky H, Wiechens B, Hinni ML. Interdisciplinary management of orbital diseases: textbook and Atlas. Stuttgart: Thieme Publishing Group; 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Michalos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations