Peripheral Neuromodulation on the Refractory Headache Disorders

Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)


In the field of chronic headache, there are a high number of patients with failure of pharmacological treatment; in these cases neuromodulation would have a remarkable role. Interest in neuromodulation is increasing in recent years. Several techniques have been tested in clinical trials with hopeful results, and some of them are already being used in daily clinical practice effectively. Invasive methods of stimulation, such as occipital nerve stimulation or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, would be reserved for patients with very severe and treatment refractory headache. On the other hand, supraorbital transcutaneous stimulation or vagus nerve stimulation is noninvasive methods that could serve as useful adjuncts to more conventional therapies. We review the results of the clinical trials and the possible indications of these techniques, as well as the results of recent studies with new approaches.


Migraine Cluster headache Neurostimulation Vagal nerve stimulation Occipital nerve stimulation Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation High cervical spinal cord stimulation Caloric vestibular stimulation Nonpainful remote electrical stimulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyHospital Clínico UnivesitarioValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversidad Católica de ValenciaValenciaSpain

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