Advertisement

Foundational Paths

  • Marie-Luisa FrickEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter is devoted to pointing out in more detail the normative fundamentals of human rights and addresses foundational questions. A key idea here is that multiple paths exist to philosophically ground the idea of human rights. At the same time, we have to mind that grounding the idea of human rights is not the same as grounding concrete rights. In addition, another differentiation has to be observed, namely between grounding the idea of human rights horizontally (why should individuals respect/care for human rights?) and justifying it vertically (why should States subject to/protect them?). The favorable account of foundational pluralism is completed by a comparison and discussion of the different theoretical approaches in that regard.

References

  1. Afsaruddin, Asma. 2006. The ‘Islamic State’: Genealogy, Facts, and Myths. Journal of Church and State 48: 153–174. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcs/48.1.153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albers, Marion, Thomas Hoffmann, and Jörn Reinhardt, eds. 2014. Human Rights and Human Nature. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Alting von Geusau, Christian. 2013. Human Dignity and the Law in Post-War Europe. Roots and Reality of an Ambiguous Concept. Oisterwijk: Wolf Legal Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Angle, Stephen C. 2002. Human Rights and Chinese Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ———. 2012. Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy. Towards Progressive Confucianism. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  6. An-Na‘im, Abdullahī Ahmed. 1990/1996. Toward an Islamic Reformation. Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law. New York: Syracuse Press.Google Scholar
  7. Appiah, Kwame Anthony. 2006. Cosmopolitanism. Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  8. Aquinas, Thomas. 1949 [1265–1273]. De regno ad regem Cypri. On Kingship to the king of Cyprus. Trans. Gerald B. Phelan. Toronto: The Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 1975 [1259–1265]. Summa Contra Genitles, Book 3. Trans. Vernon J. Bourke. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  10. Arendt, Hannah. 1951. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 1958/1974. The Human Condition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1969/1970. On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar
  13. AU. 2003. Protocol to the ACHPR on Rights of Women in Africa. http://www.achpr.org/instruments/women-protocol/. Accessed 12 Apr 2018.
  14. Augustine. 408 AD/1872. Letter to Vincentius. In Works of Aurelius Augustine Vol. 6. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.Google Scholar
  15. Bagaric, Mirko, and James Allan. 2006. The Vacuous Concept of Dignity. Journal of Human Rights 5: 257–270. https://doi.org/10.1080/14754830600653603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beitz, Charles R. 2009. The Idea of Human Rights. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ———. 2013. Human Dignity in the Theory of Human Rights: Nothing but a Phrase? Philosophy and Public Affairs 41: 259–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Benhabib, Seyla. 2011. Dignity in Adversity. Human Rights in Troubled Times. London: Polity.Google Scholar
  19. Bentham, Jeremy. 1796/1843. Anarchical Fallacies. In The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 2. Edinburgh: William Tait.Google Scholar
  20. Bible. 1983. New International Version. Colorado Springs: Biblica.Google Scholar
  21. Bloch, Tamara. 2007. Die Stellungnahmen der römisch-katholischen Amtskirche zur Frage der Menschenrechte seit 1215. Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  22. Bodin, Jean. 1576/1992. On Sovereignty. Four Chapters from the Six Books of the Commonwealth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Boucher, David. 2009. The Limits of Ethics in International Relations. Natural Law, Natural Rights, and Human Rights in Transition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boylan, Michael. 2014. Natural Human Rights. A Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Buchanan, George. 1583/1766. De Jure Regni apud Scotos or A Dialogue, concerning the due Privilege of Government, in the Kingdom of Scotland. Philadelphia: Andrew Steuart.Google Scholar
  26. Buchanan, Allen. 2013. The Heart of Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chung-Sho, Lo. 1949. Human Rights in the Chinese Tradition. In Human Rights. Comments and Interpretations, ed. UNESCO, 186. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Churchill, Robert Paul. 2006/2016. Human Rights and Global Diversity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. CoE. 1997. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Person with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine. https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/164. Accessed 12 Apr 2018.
  30. ———. 2002. ECHR Protocol Nr. 13 Convention Concerning the Abolition of the Death Penalty in all Circumstances. https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Library_Collection_P13_ETS187E_ENG.pdf. Accessed 12 Apr 2018.
  31. Cicero, Marco Tullius. 44 BC/2010. De officiis/Vom pflichtgemäßen Handeln. Stuttgart: Reclam.Google Scholar
  32. Cohen, Joshua. 2004. Minimalism About Human Rights: The Most We Can Hope for? The Journal of Political Philosophy 12: 190–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Curran, Eleanor. 2007. Reclaiming the Rights of the Hobbesian Subject. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Daly, Erin. 2012. Dignity Rights: Courts, Constitutions, and the Worth of the Human Person. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  35. Darwall, Stephen L. 1977. Two Kinds of Respect. Ethics 88: 36–49. https://doi.org/10.1086/292054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dietrich, Donald J. 2017. Human Rights and the Catholic Tradition. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dorff, Elliot N. 2002. To Do the Right and the Good. A Jewish Approach to Modern Social Ethics. Philadelphia: The Jewish Society of Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  38. Duranti, Marco. 2017. The Conservative Human Rights Revolution: European Identity, Transnational Politics, and the Origins of the European Convention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. El Fadl, Khaled Abou. 2012. The Centrality of Shari’a to Government and Constitutionalism in Islam. In Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries. Between Upheaval and Continuity, ed. Rainer Grote and Tilmann J. Röder, 35–62. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Erasmus of Rotterdam. 1524/2012. A Discussion or Discourse Concerning Free Will. In Erasmus and Luther. The Battle over Free Will. Trans. Clarence H. Miller and Peter Macardle. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  41. Etzioni, Amitai. 2010. The Normativity of Human Rights is Self-Evident. Human Rights Quarterly 32: 187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. EU. 2000. Charta of Fundamental Rights. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf. Accessed 12 Apr 2018.
  43. [Federal Republic of Germany]. 1949. Basic German Law (DGG) BGBl. p. 1.Google Scholar
  44. Feldman, Noah. 2010. Islamic Constitutionalism in Context: A Typology and a Warning. University of St. Thomas Law Journal 7: 435–451.Google Scholar
  45. Finkelstein, Claire. 2005. A Puzzle About Hobbes on Self-Defense. In Hobbes on Law, ed. Claire Finkelstein, 411–440. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  46. Forst, Rainer. 2010. The Justification of Human Rights and the Basic Right to Justification: A Reflexive Approach. Ethics 120: 711–740. https://doi.org/10.1086/653434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frick, Marie-Luisa. 2010. Ummah’s Rights or Human Rights? Universalism, Individualism and Islamic Ethics in the 21st Century. American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 27: 1–23.Google Scholar
  48. ———. 2017. Zivilisiert streiten. Zur Ethik der politischen Gegnerschaft. Stuttgart: Reclam.Google Scholar
  49. Gade, Christian B.N. 2013. What Is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations Among South Africans of African Descent. South African Journal of Philosophy 31: 484–503. https://doi.org/10.1080/02580136.2012.10751789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gauthier, David P. 1986. Morals by Agreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. ———. 1969/2000. The Logic of Leviathan. The Moral and Political Theory of Thomas Hobbes. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  52. Gearty, Conor. 2006. Can Human Rights Survive? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gewirth, Alan. 1982. Human Rights. Essays on Justification and Applications. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  54. ———. 1996. The Community of Rights. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  55. Ghannouchi, Rached. 2016. From Political Islam to Muslim Democracy: The Ennahda Party and the Future of Tunisia. Foreign Affairs 95: 58–75.Google Scholar
  56. Glensy, Rex D. 2011. The Right to Dignity. Columbia Human Rights Review 43: 65–142.Google Scholar
  57. Godwin, William. 1793/1926. An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness. Vol. 1. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  58. Goodman, Lenn Evan. 1996. God of Abraham. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Gregg, Benjamin. 2012. Human Rights as Social Constructions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Griffin, James. 2008. On Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Habermas, Jürgen. 1992. Erläuterungen zur Diskursethik. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  62. ———. 1996. Between Facts and Norms—Contribution to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. Trans. William Rehg. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2010. The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights. Metaphilosophy 41: 464–480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9973.2010.01648.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Henkin, Louis. 1990. The Age of Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Herdegen, Matthias. 2009. Kommentar Art. 1. In Grundgesetz-Kommentar, ed. Maunz/Dürig. Munich: C. H. Beck.Google Scholar
  66. Hobbes, Thomas. 1651/1985. Leviathan. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  67. ———. 1642/1998. The Cive. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  68. Höffe, Otfried. 2001. Human Rights in International Discourse: Cultural Concerns. In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7018–7025. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/referenceworks/9780080430768. Accessed 28 Mar 2018.
  69. Hoffmann, Thomas. 2011. Human Rights, Human Dignity, and the Human Life Form. In Human Rights and Human Nature, ed. Marion Albers, Thomas Hoffmann, and Jörn Reinhardt, 65–142. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  70. ———. 2014. Human Rights, Human Dignity, and the Human Life Form. In Human Rights and Human Nature, ed. Marion Albers, Thomas Hoffmann, and Jörn Reinhardt, 43–56. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  71. Hollenbach, David. 2003. The Global Face of Public Faith. Politics, Human Rights, and Christian Ethics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Hoover, Hoe. 2016. Reconstructing Human Rights. A Pragmatist und Pluralist Inquiry into Global Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hume, David. 1739/1817. A Treatise of Human Nature. London: Printed for Thomas and Joseph Allman.Google Scholar
  74. Hutcheson, Francis. 1753. An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue. London: Printed for R. Waren et al.Google Scholar
  75. Ilesanmi, Olufemi Ojo. 2015. Islamism, Statehood and Human Rights. A World of Difference. Cambridge: Intersentia.Google Scholar
  76. Jellinek, Georg. 1922. Allgemeine Staatslehre. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  77. Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. 2002/2011. The Dignity of Man: An Islamic Perspective. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society.Google Scholar
  78. Kant, Immanuel. 1797/1836. Metaphysics of Ethics. Trans. J.W. Semple. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark.Google Scholar
  79. ———. 1796/2012. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. Mary Gregor and Jens Timmermann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Kateb, George. 2011. Human Dignity. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  81. King, Sallie B. 2012. Buddhism and Human Rights. In Religion & Human Rights. An Introduction, ed. Witte John Jr. and Christian M. Green, 103–118. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Klieforth, Alexander Leslie, and Robert John Munro. 2004. The Scottish Invention of America. Democracy and Human Rights. A History of Liberty and Freedom from the Ancient Celts to the New Millennium. Dallas: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  83. Kohen, Ari. 2005. The Possibility of Secular Human Rights: Alan Gewirth and the Principle of Generic Consistency. Human Rights Review 5: 49–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-005-1002-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. König, Siegfried. 1994. Zur Begründung der Menschenrechte. Hobbes—Locke—Kant. Munich: Alber.Google Scholar
  85. Kraft, Viktor. 1963. Rationale Moralbegründung. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  86. Ladwig, Bernd. 2016. Human Rights, Institutions and the Division of Moral Labor. Politische Vierteljahreszeitschrift 55: 472–492.Google Scholar
  87. Locke, John. 1664/1954. Essay on the Law of Nature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  88. ———. 1689/2012. Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. ———. 1695/1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity as Delivered in the Scriptures. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  90. Lohmann, Georg. 2010. Zur moralischen, juridischen und politischen Dimension der Menschenrechte. In Recht und Moral, ed. Hans Jörg Sandkühler, 135–150. Hamburg: Felix Meiner.Google Scholar
  91. Luków, Pawel. 2018. A Difficult Legacy: Human Dignity as Founding Value of Human Rights. Human Rights Review 19: 313–329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-018-0500-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Luther, Martin. 1525/2012. The Enslaved Will. In Erasmus and Luther. The Battle Over Free Will. Trans. Clarence H. Miller and Peter Macardle. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  93. MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1981/1984. After Virtue. A Study in Moral Theory. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Macklin, Ruth. 2003. Dignity Is a Useless Concept. British Medical Journal 327: 1419–1420. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7429.1419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Macready, John Douglas. 2018. Hannah Arendt and the Fragility of Human Dignity. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  96. Manetti, Giannozzo. 2014 [1452–1453]. On the Dignity and Excellence of Man. In Renaissance Humanism: An Anthology of Sources. Trans. M.L. King. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  97. Margalit, Avishai. 1996. The Decent Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Maritain, Jacques. 1986/2011. Christianity and Democracy and the Rights of Man and the Natural Law. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.Google Scholar
  99. Mawdudi, Abul A’la. 1977/1995. Human Rights in Islam. Lahore: Islamic Publications.Google Scholar
  100. Mayer-Tasch, Cornelius. 1965. Thomas Hobbes und das Widerstandsrecht. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr.Google Scholar
  101. McKinley Brennan, Patrick. 2015. An Essay in Christian Constitutionalism: Building in the Divine Style, for the Common Good(s). Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion 16: 478–540.Google Scholar
  102. Miller, David. 2012. Grounding Human Rights. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15: 407–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. ———. 2014. Personhood Versus Human Needs as Grounds for Human Rights. In Griffin on Human Rights, ed. Roger Crisp, 152–169. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Milton, John. 1649/1911. The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates. New York: Henry Holt & Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Minow, Martha. 1990. Making All the Difference. Inclusion, Exclusion, and American Law. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Moyn, Samuel. 2014. The Secret History of Constitutional Dignity. Yale Human Rights and Development Journal 17: 40–73. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2159248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. ———. 2015. Christian Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  108. Ni, Peimin. 2014. Seek and You Will Find It; Let Go and You Will Loose It: Exploring a Confucian Approach to Human Dignity. Dao 13: 173–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11712-014-9381-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nussbaum, Martha C. 1985. Commodities and Capabilities. New York: Elsevier Science Publisher.Google Scholar
  110. ———. 1997. Capabilities and Human Rights. Fordham Law Review 66: 273–300.Google Scholar
  111. ———. 2006. Frontiers of Justice. Disability, Nationality, Species Membership. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  112. ———. 2011a. Creating Capabilities. The Human Development Approach. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. ———. 2011b. Capabilities, Entitlements, Rights: Supplementation and Critique. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 12: 23–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/19452829.2011.541731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ommerborn, Wolfgang, Gregor Paul, and Heiner Roetz. 2011. Das Buch Mengzi im Kontext der Menschenrechtsfrage. Vol. 2. Berlin: Lit.Google Scholar
  115. OSCE. 1975. Helsinki Final Act. https://www.osce.org/helsinki-final-act?download=true. Accessed 12 Apr 2018.
  116. Paine, Thomas. 2003 [1791–1792]. The Rights of Man. In Common Sense, Rights of Man, and Other Essential Writings of Thomas Paine, 129–350. New York: Signet Classics.Google Scholar
  117. Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni. 1486/2014. Oration on the Dignity of Man. In Renaissance Humanism: An Anthology of Sources. Trans. M.L. King. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  118. Pope Benedict XVI. 2010. Address of His Holiness Benedict XVI to Members of the Pontifical Academy for Life. https://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/speeches/2010/february/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20100213_acdlife.html. Accessed 16 Apr 2018.
  119. Pope Innocent III. 1195/1978. De Miseria Condicionis Humane. Trans. Robert E. Lewis. Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  120. Pope John XXIII. 1963. Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris. http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-xxiii/de/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_11041963_pacem.html. Accessed 12 Apr 2018.
  121. Pope Pius VI. 1791. Encyclical Letter Quod Aliquantum. http://digilander.libero.it/magistero/p6quodal.htm. Accessed 31 Mar 2018.
  122. Quraishi-Landes, Asifa. 2015. Islamic Constitutionalism: Not Secular. Not Theocratic. Not Impossible. Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion 16: 533–579.Google Scholar
  123. Qur’ān. 1990. Medina: King Fahd Holy Qur’ān Printing Complex.Google Scholar
  124. Rawls, John. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  125. ———. 1999. The Law of Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  126. Reinbold, Jenna. 2017. Seeing the Myth in Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Republic of Malta. 1964. Constitution. http://justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lom&itemid=8566. Accessed 9 Apr 2018.
  128. Rommen, Heinrich. 1945. The State in Catholic Thought. A Treatise in Political Philosophy. London: B. Herder Book Co.Google Scholar
  129. Rorty, Richard. 1993. Human Rights, Rationality, and Sentimentality. In On Human Rights. The Oxford Amnesty Lectures, ed. Stephen Shute and Susan Hurley, 112–134. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  130. ———. 1998. Truth and Progress. In Philosophical Papers, vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rosen, Michael. 2012a. Dignity. Its History and Meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. ———. 2012b. Dignity Past and Present, Commentary. In Dignity, Rank, and Rights, ed. Jeremy Waldron, 79–98. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1755/2004. Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  134. ———. 1762/2012. On the Social Contract. Trans. G.H.D. Cole. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  135. Sachedina, Abdulaziz. 2009. Islam & the Challenge of Human Rights. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. [Second Vatican Council]. 1965. Declaration Dignitatis Humanae. http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decl_19651207_dignitatis-humanae_ge.html. Accessed 2018.
  137. Scalon, Thomas M. 1998. What We Owe Each Other. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  138. Schiller, Friedrich. 1848. Die Künstler. In Gedichte. Leipzig: Vogel.Google Scholar
  139. Schmidt-Leukel, Perry. 2006. Buddhism and the Idea of Human Rights: Resonances and Dissonances. Buddhist-Christian Studies 26: 33–49. https://doi.org/10.1353/bcs.2006.0024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schroeder, Doris. 2012. Human Rights and Human Dignity. An Appeal to Separate the Conjoined Twins. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15: 323–335. https://doi.org/10.2307/23254292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley-Cooper. 1683/1984. An Inquiry Concerning Virtue, or Merit. Stuttgart: frommann-holzboog.Google Scholar
  142. Singer, Peter. 1980/2011. Practical Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Skinner, Quentin. 1980. The Origins of the Calvinist Theory of Revolution. In After the Reformation. Essays in Honor of J. H. Hexter, ed. Barbara C. Malament, 309–330. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Solomon, Norman. 2007. Religion and Human Rights with Special Reference to Judaism. In Does God Believe in Human Rights? ed. Nazila Ghanea, Alan Stephens, and Raphael Walden, 89–105. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sommer, Andreas Urs. 2017. Menschenrechte gebrauchen. Zur philosophischen Relevanz ihrer Historizität. In Menschenrechte. Begründung—Universalisierbarkeit—Genese, ed. Kurt Seelmann, 126–141. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  146. Soroush, Abdolkarim. 2000. Reason, Freedom, and Democracy in Islam. In Essential Writings of Abdolkarim Soroush. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Telushkin, Joseph. 2006. A Code of Jewish Ethics Vol. 1: You Shall Be Holy. New York: Bell Tower.Google Scholar
  148. [The Russian Orthodox Church]. 2008. The Bases of the Russian Orthodox Church’s Teaching on Human Dignity, Freedom and Rights. https://mospat.ru/en/documents/dignity-freedom-rights/. Accessed 15 Feb 2018.
  149. Tugendhat, Ernst. 1993. Vorlesungen über Ethik. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  150. UN. 1945. Charta. http://www.un.org/en/charter-united-nations/. Accessed 8 Sep 2018.
  151. ———. 1947. Drafting Committee Summary Record of the Eighth Meeting, E/CN.4/AC.1/SR.8.Google Scholar
  152. ———. 1948. UDHR, A/RES/3/217.Google Scholar
  153. ———. 1966a. ICCPR, A/RES/21/2200.Google Scholar
  154. ———. 1966b. ICESCR, A/RES/21/2200.Google Scholar
  155. Waldron, Jeremy. 2012. Dignity, Rank, & Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. ———. 2015. Is Dignity the Foundation of Human Rights? In Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights, ed. Cruft Rowan, S. Matthew Liao, and Massimo Renzo, 117–137. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688623.003.0006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Weber-Guskar, Eva, and Mario Brandhorst, eds. 2017. Menschenwürde. Eine philosophische Debatte über Dimensionen ihrer Kontingenz. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  158. Weiming, Tu. 2010. The Value of the Human in Classical Confucian Thought. In Comparative Political Theory. An Introduction, ed. Fred Dallmayr, 191–200. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  159. Wetz, Franz Josef. 2005. Illusion Menschenwürde. Aufstieg und Fall eines Grundwerts. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.Google Scholar
  160. Williams, Bernard. 2006. The Human Prejudice. In Philosophy as a Humanistic Discipline. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  161. [World Russian People’s Council]. 2006. Declaration on Human Rights and Dignity. https://mospat.ru/archive/en/2006/04/30728/. Accessed 15 Feb 2018.
  162. Zhao, Tingyang. 2009. A Political World Philosophy in Terms of All-under-heaven (Tian-xia). Diogenes 56: 5–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/0392192109102149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zaret, David. 2000. Tradition, Human Rights, and the English Revolution. In Human Rights and Revolutions, ed. Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, Lynn Hunt, and Marilyn B. Young, 43–58. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations