Result and Discussion

  • Gholamreza Vahedi Sarrigani
  • Iraj Sadegh Amiri
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering book series (BRIEFSELECTRIC)


The XRD results show that well crystalline willemite (Zn2SiO4) with the contribution of dopant (Er3+) in the lattice can be achieved at the temperature of 900 °C. The XRD results also show that rhombohedral crystalline willemite was formed by mixing ZnO and SLS glass and optimum heat treatment of 1000 °C to produce willemite-based glass-ceramics, the solid-state reaction between well-crystallized willemite and Er3+ was obtained at 900 °C sintering temperature, and Er3+ can be completely dissolved in the lattice at this temperature. FTIR results confirmed the appearance of the vibrations of SiO4 and ZnO4 groups which clearly suggests the formation of the Zn2SiO4 phase; the compositional evaluation of the FTIR properties of the [(ZnO)0.5(SLS)0.5]1−x[Er2O3]x system indicates that the presence of erbium ions affects the surrounding of the Si–O and trivalent erbium occupies their position; these agree with the XRD data at the peak positioned at 20.29°. The most significant modification produced by the addition of erbium and the increase of the heat treatment temperature of the studied samples shows a drop in the intensity of FTIR band located at 513 cm−1, which indicates that the addition of erbium oxide and increase in the sintering temperature decline the presence of SiO4 group. The microstructure analysis of the samples using FESEM shows that the average grain size of samples tends to increase from 325.29 to 625.2 nm as the sintering temperature increases. Finally, the UV-VIS spectra of all doped glass-ceramics depict absorption band due to host matrix network and the presence of Er2O3. The results show that the intensity of the bands tends to grow by increasing the Er2O3 content in the range of 1–5 wt.% and the sintering temperature in the 500–900 °C range, followed by a drop at the temperatures of 1000 and 1100 °C. By adding the Er2O3 content to the host network and increasing the sintering temperature from 500 to 900 °C , the intensity of UV-VIS bands situated between 400 and 1800 nm increased due to the absorption of Er3+ions and the host crystal structure. The intensity of the UV bands was observed to have dropped when the sintering temperature was increased to 1000 and 1100 °C, which indicates that by going to the temperature of 1000 and 1100 °C, the Er2O3 particles tend to produce cluster that causes the decrease in the UV absorption bands. For the sample with x = 5 wt.% Er2O3, two strong absorption bands situated at about 1535 and 523 nm were observed. These bands were attributed to the optical transition from 4I15/2 to 4I13/2 and 4S3/2 state, respectively.


Willemite (Zn2SiO4Rhombohedra crystalline willemite Erbium oxide UV-VIS bands 


  1. 1.
    Y. Guo, H. Ohsato, K. Kakimoto, Characterization and dielectric behavior of willemite and TiO2-doped willemite ceramics at millimeter-wave frequency. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(10–11), 1827–1830 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Mazaheri, A.M. Zahedi, M. Haghighatzadeh, S.K. Sadrnezhaad, Sintering of titania nanoceramic: densification and grain growth. Ceram. Int. 35, 685–691 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Bowen, C. Carry, From powders to sintered pieces: forming, transformations and sintering of nanostructured ceramic oxides. Powder Technol. 128(2–3), 248–255 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Marumo, Y. Syono, Effects of soda–lime–silica waste glass on transition of Er3+ formation kinetics and micro-structures development in vitreous ceramics. Acta Crystallogr. B 27, 1868–1870 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Q. Lu, P. Wang, J. Li, Structure and luminescence properties of Mn-doped Zn2SiO4 prepared with extracted mesoporous silica. Mater. Res. Bull. 46(6), 791–795 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Rooksby, A. McKeag, The effect of nucleation catalysts on crystallization of aluminosilicate. Trans. Faraday Soc. 37, 308–311 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Takesue, H. Hayashi, R. Smith Jr., Thermal and chemical methods for producing zinc silicate (willemite): a review. Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 55(3–4), 98–124 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Kaewwiset et al., ESR and spectral studies of Er3+ ions in soda-lime silicate glass. Phys. B. 409, 24–29 (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Cho, H. Chang, Preparation and characterizations of Zn2SiO4:Mn green phosphors. Ceram. Int. 29(6), 611–618 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Kanagesan, S. Jesurani, R. Velmurugan, C. Kumar, T. Kalaivani, Magnetic hysteresis property of barium hexaferrite using D-fructose as a fuel. J. Mater. Sci. Eng. 4, 88–92 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.R. Lukić, D.M. Petrović, M.D. Dramićanin, M. Mitrić, L. Ðačanin, Optical and structural properties of Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ green phosphor nanoparticles obtained by a polymer-assisted sol–gel method. Scr. Mater. 58(8), 655–658 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Q. Chen, M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, E. Monchiero, G. Perrone, Novel Er-doped PbO and B2O3 based glasses: investigation of quantum efficiency and non-radiative transition probability for 1.5 μm broadband emission fluorescence. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324(1–2), 12–20 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Shaim, M. Et-tabirou, L. Montagne, G. Palavit, Role of bismuth and titanium in Na2O–Bi2O3–TiO2–P2O5 glasses and a model of structural units. Mater. Res. Bull. 37(15), 2459–2466 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Iordanova, Y. Dimitriev, V. Dimitrov, S. Kassabov, D. Klissurski, Glass formation and structure in the V2O5-Bi2O3-Fe2O3 glasses. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 204(2), 141–150 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G.L.J. Trettenhahn, G.E. Nauer, A. Neckel, Vibrational spectroscopy on the PbO-PbSO4 system and some related compounds: part 1. Fundamentals, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Vib. Spectrosc. 5(1), 85–100 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.R. Ahsan, M.G. Mortuza, Infrared spectra of xCaO(1-x-z)SiO2zP2O5 glasses. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(27–29), 2333–2340 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D.R. Bosomworth, H. Hayes, A.R.L. Spray, G.D. Watkins, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 317(5), 133 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Lin, D.U. Sänger, M. Mennig, K. Bärner, Sol–gel deposition and characterization of Mn2+-doped silicate phosphor films. Thin Solid Films 360(1–2), 39–45 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.J. Kenyon, Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics. Prog. Quantum Electron. 26(4–5), 225–284 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Spirkova, Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses. Opt. Mater. 27(2), 331–336 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E.F. Chillcce, I.O. Mazali, O.L. Alves, L.C. Barbosa, Optical and physical properties of Er3+-doped oxy-fluoride tellurite glasses. Opt. Mater. 33(3), 389–396 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Okamoto, T. Inasaki, I. Saito, Synthesis and ESR studies of nitronyl nitroxide-tethered oligodeoxynucleotides. Tetrahedron Lett. 46(5), 791–795 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Will, W. Pies, A. Weiss, Simple Oxo-compounds of Silicon Without H2O, NH3,(Simple Silicates), in Key Element: Si. Part 1, ed. by K. H. Hellwege, A. M. Hellwege, vol. 7d1a, (Springer, New York, 1985), pp. 60–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Bosca, L. Pop, G. Borodi, P. Pascuta, E. Culea, XRD and FTIR structural investigations of erbium-doped bismuth–lead–silver glasses and glass ceramics. J. Alloys Compd. 479(1–2), 579–582 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F.F. Bentley, L.D. Smithson, A. L. Rozek, Infrared Spectra and Characteristic Frequencies 700–300 cm −1, vol. 68, no. 1 (Interscience Pub., New York, 1968), pp. 103–188.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. Sivakumar, A. Lakshmanan, S. Kalpana, R. Sangeetha Rani, R. Satheesh Kumar, M.T. Jose, Low-temperature synthesis of Zn2SiO4:Mn green photoluminescence phosphor. J. Lumin. 132(8), 1917–1920 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    B.N. Figgis, Introduction to Ligand Field Theory (Wiley, New York, 1966)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gholamreza Vahedi Sarrigani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Iraj Sadegh Amiri
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringThe University of SydneyDarlingtonAustralia
  2. 2.Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced TechnologyUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Ton Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations