Tragedy of Confusion

  • Farhad Gohardani
  • Zahra Tizro
Part of the Political Economy of Islam book series (PEoI)


Our voyage of discovery for understanding the complexity, specificity, and singularity of Iranian experience of development starts with the fundamental question of “What constitutes Iranianness (in the same vein as Turkishness, Britishness, etc.)?”, as the question of “Why are we backward?” logically tends to lead to the question of “Who and what are this ‘we’ as Iranians?” (see Akerlof and Kranton 2010). With regard to the notion of Iranianness and its constitution, Frye (1977: 1–3) observes that:

Of all of the lands of the Middle East, Iran is perhaps both the most conservative and at the same time the most innovative. Whereas Egypt and Syria, for example, underwent great changes in the course of two millennia of history, Iran seems to have preserved much more of its ancient heritage. … Iran was converted to the religion of Islam, but … [t]he continuity of ancient Iranian traditions down to the present is impressive… Paradoxically … Herodotus … said that no people were more prone to accept foreign habits as the Persians. Anyone who has walked the streets of new Tehran can see all kinds of styles of architecture and the latest women’s dress styles.


  1. Abadian, H. (2009a). Old Concepts and New Ideas: An Introduction to the Iranian Constitutionalism (in Persian). Tehran: Kavir.Google Scholar
  2. Abadian, H. (2009b). The Crisis of the Formation and Consciousness of Intellectuals in Iran (in Persian). Tehran: Kavir.Google Scholar
  3. Abrahamian, E. (1989). Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  4. Abrahamian, E. (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adamiyat, F. (1970). The Ideas of Akhundzadeh (in Persian). Tehran: Entesharat-e Amir Kabir (Amir Kabir Publications).Google Scholar
  6. Adamiyat, F. (1978). The Ideas of Mirza Agha Khan Kermani (in Persian). Tehran: Entesharat-e Payam (Payam Publications).Google Scholar
  7. Afary, J. (2013). The Place of Shi’i Clerics in the First Iranian Constitution. Critical Research on Religion, 1(3), 327–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Afghani, S. J.-a. D. (1892). The Reign of Terror in Persia. The Contemporary Review, 61, 238–248.Google Scholar
  9. Aho, K. (2009). Heidegger’s Neglect of the Body. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  10. Ainslie, G. (2001). Breakdown of Will. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ajodani, M. (2002). Either Death or Modernity (in Persian). Tehran: Nashr-e Akhtaran.Google Scholar
  12. Ajodani, M. (2006). Hedayat, Blind Owl, and Nationalism (in Persian). London: Fasl-e Ketab Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Akerlof, G. A., & Kranton, R. E. (2010). Identity Economics: How Our Identities Shape Our Work, Wages, and Well-Being. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Alaolmolki, N. (1987). The New Iranian Left. Middle East Journal, 41(2), 218–233.Google Scholar
  15. Algar, H. (1999). Imam Khomeini: A Short Biography. The Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini’s Works. Retrieved May 29, 2013, from
  16. Allen, G. (2000). Intertextuality. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Almond, I. (2004). Sufism and Deconstruction: A Comparative Study of Derrida and Ibn Arabi. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Amanat, A. (1997). Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  19. Amin, H. (2003). The History of Law in Iran (in Persian). Tehran: Entesharat-e Da’erotolmaref-e Iranshenasi.Google Scholar
  20. Aminrazavi, M. (2005). The Wine of Wisdom: The Life, Poetry and Philosophy of Omar Khayyam. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Ansari, A. M. (2012). The Politics of Nationalism in Modern Iran. New York: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ansari, A. M. (2014). Iran: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  23. Arjomand, S. A. (1988). The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran (Studies in Middle Eastern History). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  24. Ashouri, D. (2005). Us and Modernity (in Persian). Tehran: Serat.Google Scholar
  25. Ashouri, D. (2011). Mysticism and Slyness in the Poetry of Hafez (in Persian). Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz.Google Scholar
  26. Azmayesh, M. (2001). With Ferdowsi: The Mystical Voyage to the Land of Seemorgh (in Persian). Tehran: entesharat-e Haghighat.Google Scholar
  27. Azzi, C., & Ehrenberg, R. (1975). Household Allocation of Time and Church Attendance. The Journal of Political Economy, 83(1), 27–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Baudrillard, J. F. (1998). The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Bauman, Z. (2000). Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  30. Bausani, A. (1975). Muhammad or Darius? The Elements and Basis of Iranian Culture. In S. Vryonis Jr. (Ed.), Islam and Cultural Change in the Middle Ages (pp. 43–57). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
  31. Bayat, A. (2009). Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Bayly, C. (2004). The Birth of the Modern World 1780–1914. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  33. Bazargan, M. (1984). Iran’s Revolution in Two Moves (in Persian). Tehran: Naraghi.Google Scholar
  34. Becker, E. (1973). The Denial of Death. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  35. Becker, G. S. (1996). Accounting for Tastes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Beinhocker, E. D. (2007). The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  37. Benabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2016). Mindful Economics: The Production, Consumption, and Value of Beliefs. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(3), 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Berlin, I. (1990). In H. Hardy (Ed.), The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  39. Borgmann, A. (1993). Crossing the Postmodern Divide. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Boroujerdi, M. (2003). The Ambivalent Modernity of Iranian Intellectuals in Intellectual Trends. In N. Nabavi (Ed.), Twentieth-Century Iran: A Critical Survey (pp. 11–23). Florida: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  41. Boroujerdi, M. (Ed.). (2013). Mirror for the Muslim Prince: Islam and the Theory of Statecraft. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Brague, R. (2007). The Law of God: The Philosophical History of an Idea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. Brosius, M. (2006). The Persians. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Brumberg, D. (2001). Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Burke, B. L., Martens, A., & Faucher, E. H. (2010). Two Decades of Terror Management Theory: A Meta-Analysis of Mortality Salience Research. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 14(2), 155–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cave, S. (2012). Immortality: The Quest to Live Forever and How It Drives Civilization. New York: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Chakrabarty, D. (2000). Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Chehabi, H. E. (1990). Iranian Politics and Religious Modernism: The Liberation Movement of Iran Under the Shah and Khomeini. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  49. Clark, A., & Chalmers, D. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis, 58, 7–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Clemens, W. C. (2013). Complexity Science and World Affairs. New York: Sunny Press.Google Scholar
  51. Connolly, W. E. (2008). The Power of Assemblages and the Fragility of Things. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 17(2), 241–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Corbin, H. (1993). History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Coughlin, C. (2009). Khomeini’s Ghost: Iran Since 1979. London: Pan Macmillan.Google Scholar
  54. Critchley, S. (2010). How to Stop Living and Start Worrying: Conversations with Carl Cederstrom. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  55. Cronin, S. (Ed.). (2014). Anti-Veiling Campaigns in the Muslim World: Gender, Modernism and the Politics of Dress. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Dabashi, H. (2010). Iran, the Green Movement and the USA: The Fox and the Paradox. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  57. Dabashi, H. (2011a). Shi’ism: A Religion of Protest. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Dabashi, H. (2011b). The Green Movement in Iran. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  59. Dabashi, H. (2012). The World of Persian Literary Humanism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dabashi, H. (2013). Being a Muslim in the World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dandamaev, M. A., & Lukonin, V. G. (2004). The Culture and Social Institutions of Ancient Iran. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  62. Daryaee, T. (2009). Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  63. Davaran, F. (2010). Continuity in Iranian Identity: Resilience of a Cultural Heritage. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Davis, D. (2012). Faces of Love: Hafez and the Poets of Shiraz (D. Davis, trans.). Washington: Mage Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. Deleuze, G. (1990). Bergsonism. New York: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  66. Derrida, J. (1992). Acts of Literature. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Dinani, G. (2010). The Mystical and Philosophical Teachings of Imam Khomeini (in Persian). Tehran: Khabaronline.Google Scholar
  68. Dinani, G. (with Karim Feizi). (2011). Existence and Intoxication: Khayyam in the Eye of Dinani (in Persian). Tehran: Entesharate Ettela’at.Google Scholar
  69. Dixit, A. K., Skeath, S., & Reilly, D. (2015). Games of Strategy. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  70. Dummett, M. (1981). The Interpretation of Frege’s Philosophy. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  71. Elster, J. (1998). Emotions and Economic Theory. Journal of Economic Literature, 36(1), 47–74.Google Scholar
  72. Elster, J. (2000). Ulysses Unbound: Studies in Rationality. In Precommitment, and Constraints. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  73. Enayat, H. (2013). Law, State, and Society in Modern Iran: Constitutionalism, Autocracy, and Legal Reform, 1906–1941. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fang, H., & Loury, G. C. (2005). “Dysfunctional Identities” Can Be Rational. The American Economic Review, 95(2), 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ferdowsi, A. (2008). The “Emblem of the Manifestation of the Iranian Spirit”: Hafiz and the Rise of the National Cult of Persian Poetry. Iranian Studies, 41(5), 667–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ferrer, D. F. (2004). Philosophical Aphorisms: Critical Encounters with Heidegger and Nietzsche. Book on Demand.Google Scholar
  77. Flynn, T. R. (2005). Sartre, Foucault, and Historical Reason: Poststructuralist Mapping of History (Vol. 2). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Foltz, R. (2016). Iran in World History. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  79. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  80. Foucault, M. (1981). On Revolution. Philosophy and Social Criticism, 1(1981), 5–9.Google Scholar
  81. Foucault, M. (1984). The Foucault Reader (P. Rabinow, ed.). New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  82. Foucault, M. (2003). The Birth of the Clinic. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Freud, S. (1929). Civilization and Its Discontents. Electronic version. Aylesbury: Chrysoma Associates Ltd.Google Scholar
  84. Frye, R. N. (1977/2000). The Golden Age of Persia: The Arabs in the East. New York: Phoenix Press.Google Scholar
  85. Frye, R. N. (2005). Greater Iran: A 20th Century Odyssey. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers.Google Scholar
  86. Gabriel, M., & Zizek, S. (2009). Mythology, Madness, and Laughter: Subjectivity in German Idealism. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  87. Ghamari-Tabrizi, B. (2016). Foucault in Iran: Islamic Revolution After the Enlightenment. London: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gillespie, M. A. (2008). The Theological Origins of Modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gnoli, G. (1989). The Idea of Iran: An Essay on Its Origin. Roma: Istituto italiano peril Medio ed Estremo Oriente.Google Scholar
  90. Goldenberg, J. L., Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., & Solomon, S. (2000). ‘Fleeing the Body: A Terror Management Perspective on the Problem of Human’ Corporeality. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(3), 200–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Grimshaw, M. (Ed.). (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  92. Haar, M. (2002). Attunement and Thinking. In H. L. Dreyfus & M. A. Wrathall (Eds.), Heidegger Reexamined: Art, Poetry, and Technology (Vol. 3). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. Hallward, P. (2003). Badiou: A Subject to Truth. London: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  94. Hanson, C. (With a Chapter by George Ainslie). (2009). Thinking About Addiction: Hyperbolic Discounting and Responsible Agency. New York: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  95. Hardin, R. (1995). One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Heidegger, M. (1958). The Question of Being. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  97. Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and Time. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  98. Hiro, D. (1985/2013). Iran Under the Ayatollahs. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. Hoy, D. C. (2009). The Time of Our Lives: A Critical History of Temporality. London: The MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hunter, S. (2014). Iran Divided. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  101. Iannaccone, L. R. (1995). Household Production, Human Capital, and the Economics of Religion. In M. Tommasi & K. Ierulli (Eds.), The New Economics of Human Behavior (pp. 172–187). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Iannaccone, L. R. (1998). Introduction to the Economics of Religion. Journal of Economic Literature, 36(3), 1465–1495.Google Scholar
  103. Iannaccone, L. R. (2006). The Market for Martyrs. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, 2(2006), Article 4.Google Scholar
  104. Islami Nadoushan, M. A. (2004). Four Speakers of Iran’s Conscience: Ferdowsi, Rumi, Sa’di, Hafiz (in Persian). Tehran: Nashr-e Ghatreh.Google Scholar
  105. Islami Nadoushan, M. A. (2007). Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow (in Persian). Tehran: Sherkat-e Sahami-ye Enteshar.Google Scholar
  106. Jahanbegloo, R. (Ed.). (2004). Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity (Global Encounters). New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  107. Jameson, F. (1988). The Ideologies of Theory: The Syntax of History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  108. Kamaly, H. (2018). God and Man in Tehran: Contending Visions of the Divine from the Qajars to the Islamic Republic. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Katouzian, H. (2000). European Liberalisms and Modern Concepts of Liberty in Iran. Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis, 16(2), 9–29.Google Scholar
  110. Katouzian, H. (Ed.). (2008). Sadeq Hedayat: His Work and His Wondrous World. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  111. Katouzian, H. (2010). The Persians: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Iran. London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Katouzian, H. (2011). The Revolution for Law: A Chronographic Analysis of the Constitutional Revolution of Iran. Middle Eastern Studies, 47(5), 757–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Katouzian, H. (2012). Seyyed Hasan Taqizadeh: Three Lives in a Lifetime. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 32(1), 195–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Keddie, N. R. (1962). Religion and Irreligion in Early Iranian Nationalism. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 4(3), 265–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Keddie, N. R. (1980). Iran: Religion, Politics, and Society: Collected Essays. Sussex: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  116. Kermani, A. K. (1925). The War of Seventy-Two Belief Systems (in Persian). Berlin: Iranshahr Publications.Google Scholar
  117. Khomeini, R. (2010). The Book of Light: Volume 7 (in Persian). Tehran: Mpasseseh-ye Tanzm va Nashr-e Asar-e Imam Khomeini.Google Scholar
  118. Khorramshahi, B. (1988). The Book of Hafez: A Guide (in Persian). Tehran: Entesharat-e Soroush.Google Scholar
  119. Kia, M. (1995). Mizra Fath Ali Akhundzadeh and the Call for Modernization of the Islamic World. Middle Eastern Studies, 31(3), 422–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kulikowski, M. (2016). The Triumph of Empire: The Roman World From Hadrian to Constantine. London: Profile Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kuran, T. (2011). The Long Divergence: How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Kuran, T. (2018). Islam and Economic Performance: Historical and Contemporary Links. Journal of Economic Literature, 56(4), 1292–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kurzman, C. (2008). Democracy Denied, 1905–1915: Intellectuals and the Fate of Democracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Lacan, J. (1988). The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: Book 2. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  125. Lambton, A. K. S. (1964). A Reconsideration of the Position of the Marja’ Al-Taqlīd and the Religious Institution. Studia Islamica, 20, 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Lambton, A. K. S. (1980). Islamic Mirrors for Princes. In Theory and Practice in Medieval Persian Government. London: Variorum Reprints.Google Scholar
  127. Lancaster, C., & van de Walle, N. (Eds.). (2018). The Oxford Handbook of the Politics of Development. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  128. Legenhausen, H. M. (2007). Introduction. Topoi, 26, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lester, D. (Ed.). (2015). On Multiple Selves. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  130. Lewis, B. (2004). From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting the Middle East. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  131. Lewisohn, L. (Ed.). (2010). Hafiz and the Religion of Love in Classical Persian Poetry. London: Tauris.Google Scholar
  132. Mackey, S. (1998). The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation. New York: Plume Books.Google Scholar
  133. Mahmoud, S. (2007). From ‘Heidegger to Suhrawardi’: An Introduction to the Thought of Henry Corbin. Retrieved December 7, 2013, from
  134. Mann, G. (2017). In the Long Run We Are All Dead. Brooklyn: Verso.Google Scholar
  135. Markell, P. (2003). Bound by Recognition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Masroori, C. (2000). European Thought in Nineteenth-Century Iran: David Hume and Others. Journal of the History of Ideas, 61(4), 657–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Medina, J. (2006). Speaking from Elsewhere: A New Contextualist Perspective on Meaning. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  138. Milani, A. (2004). Lost Wisdom: Rethinking Modernity in Iran. Washington: Mage Publishers.Google Scholar
  139. Milani, A. (2011). Is_Ahmadinejad_Islamic_enough_for_Iran. Foreign policy.
  140. Mirsepassi, A., & Faraji, M. (2016). De-Politicizing Westoxification: The Case of Bonyad Monthly. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 45(3), 355–375. Scholar
  141. Moaveni, A. (2005). Lipstick Jihad. A Memoir of Growing Up Iranian in America and American in Iran. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  142. Mohaghegh, J. B. (2010). New Literature and Philosophy of the Middle East: The Chaotic Imagination. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mohammadi Malayeri, M. (1996–2003). History and Culture of Iran in the Transitional Period from the Sassanid Age to Islamic Age (in Persian, six volumes). Tehran: Tus.Google Scholar
  144. Moin, B. (1999). Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  145. Mokyr, J. (2016). A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy. Oxford: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Mosavi, S. A. (2013). Fardid in the Narrative of Bizhan Abdolkarimi (in Persian). khabaronline.
  147. Movahhed, M. A. (1999). The Confused Dream of Oil: Dr. Mosaddegh and the Iranian National Movement (in Persian). Tehran: Karnameh.Google Scholar
  148. Movahhed, M. A. (2004). The Confused Dream of Oil: From the Coup of 28th of Mordad to the Fall of Zahedi (in Persian). Tehran: Karnameh.Google Scholar
  149. Mueller, D. C. (2003). Public Choice III. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Mulhall, S. (1996). Heidegger and Being and Time. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  151. Nasri, A. (2007). Encounter with Modernity (in Persian) (Vol. 2). Tehran: Nashr-e Elm.Google Scholar
  152. Nietzsche, F. W. (1999). The Birth of Tragedy and Other Writings. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  153. Nuovo, V. (2011). Christianity, Antiquity, and Enlightenment: Interpretations of Locke. London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Omidsalar, M. (2011). Poetics and Politics of Iran’s National Epic, the Shahnameh. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  155. Omidsalar, M. (2012). Iran’s Epic and America’s Empire: A Handbook for a Generation in Limbo. Santa Monica, CA: Afshar Publishing.Google Scholar
  156. Osanloo, A. (2009). The Politics of Women’s Rights in Iran. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons. New York: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Quiggin, J. (2010). Zombie Economics: How Dead Ideas Still Walk Among Us. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Paidar, P. (1995). Women and the Political Process in Twentieth-Century Iran. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  160. Parr, A. (Ed.). (2010). The Deleuze Dictionary (revised ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Parsons, W. B. (1999). The Enigma of the Oceanic Feeling: Revisioning the Psychoanalytic Theory of Mysticism. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  162. Pedersen, N. J. L. L., & Wright, C. D. (Eds.). (2013). Truth and Pluralism: Current Debates. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  163. Platteau, J.-P. (2011). Political Instrumentalization of Islam and the Risk of Obscurantist Deadlock. World Development, 39(2), 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Platteau, J.-P. (2017). Islam Instrumentalized. New York: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Platteau, J.-P., & Peccoud, R. (Eds.). (2011). Culture, Institutions, and Development: New Insights into an Old Debate. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  166. Poole, A. (2005). Tragedy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: OUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Popper, K. R. (1961). The Poverty of Historicism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  168. Raffnsøe, S., Gudmand-Hoyer, M., & Thaning, M. S. (2016). Michel Foucault: A Research Companion. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Rahnema, A. (1998). An Islamic Utopian: a Political Biography of Ali Shari’ati. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  170. Rajaee, F. (2006). The Problematic of Iranian Contemporary Identity: Participation in the World of One Civilization and Many Cultures (in Persian). Tehran: Nashr-e Ney.Google Scholar
  171. Rajaee, F. (2007). Islamism and Modernism: The Changing Discourse in Iran. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  172. Ricoeur, P. (1981). Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rothenberg, J. C. (2011). Inside the Revolution: How the Followers of Jihad, Jefferson & Jesus Are Battling to Dominate the Middle East and Transform the World. Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers.Google Scholar
  174. Rose, J., & Shulman, G. (2016). The Non-Linear Mind: Psychoanalysis of Complexity in Psychic Life. London: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
  175. Ross, D. (2005). Economic Theory and Cognitive Science: Microexplanation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  176. Ross, D. (2010). Game Theory. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 edition).
  177. Savant, S. B. (2013). The New Muslims of Post-Conquest Iran: Tradition, Memory, and Conversion. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Schellenberg, S. (2013). A Trilemma About Mental Content. In J. K. Shear (Ed.), Mind, Reason, and Being-in-the-World: The McDowell-Dreyfus Debate (pp. 272–282). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  179. Schimmel, A. (1975). Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  180. Sedghi, H. (2007). Women and Politics in Iran: Veiling, Unveiling, and Reveiling. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Shafa, S. (1999). Explaining the Problems: An Answer to the a-Thousand-Year Questions from Koleini to Khomeini (in Persian). Paris: Nashr-e Farzad.Google Scholar
  182. Shakibi, Z. (2016). The Rastakhiz Party and Pahlavism: The Beginnings of State Anti-Westernism in Iran. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. Scholar
  183. Shakoori, A. (2001). The State and Rural Development in Post-Revolutionary Iran. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Sharifi, M. (2013). Imagining Iran: The Tragedy of Subaltern Nationalism. New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  185. Shayegan, D. (1977/2007). Asia Against the West (in Persian). Tehran: Entesharat Amir Kabir.Google Scholar
  186. Shayegan, D. (2012). The Dialogue Between Civilization Started Before the Revolution/Still Our Best Thinkers Are Poets (in Persian). Yarikh-e Irani. accessed 07/05/2013.
  187. Shayegan, D. (2014). Five Realms of Presence: A Discourse on Iranian Poeticality (in Persian). Tehran: Farhan Mo’aser.Google Scholar
  188. Sohrabi, N. (2011). Revolution and Constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire and Iran. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Soroush, A. (1993). Sturdier than Ideology (in Persian). Tehran: Serat.Google Scholar
  190. Steward, T. P. (2017). In Between Home and Homeland: Diaspora Identity as a Cultural Hybrid in Mohsen Namjoo’s “Cielito Lindo”. Popular Communication, 15(3), 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Stratmann, T. (1997). Logrolling. In D. Mueller (Ed.), Perspectives on Public Choice (pp. 322–341). Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  192. Tabatabai, J. (1994/2006). The Decline of Political Thoughts in Iran (in Persian). Tehran: Kavir.Google Scholar
  193. Tabatabai, J. (2013). An Anomaly in the History of Persian Political Thought. In M. Boroujerdi (Ed.), Mirror for the Muslim Prince: Islam and the Theory of Statecraft. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  194. Tavakoli-Targhi, M. (1990). The Effect of Awareness About the French Revolution on the Constitutional Revolution in Iran (in Persian). Iran Nameh, shomareh-ye 3, Tabestan-e 1369.Google Scholar
  195. Tavakoli-Targhi, M. (2001). Refashioning Iran: Orientalism, Occidentalism, and Historiography. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Tavakoli-Targhi, M. (2009). Historiography and Crafting Iranian National Identity. In T. Atabaki (Ed.), Iran in the 20th Century Historiography and Political Culture. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  197. Taylor, C. (2001). Two Theories of Modernity. In D. Gaonkar (Ed.), Alternative Modernities. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  198. Taylor, C. (2007). A Secular Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  199. Taylor, C. (2016). The Language Animal: The Full Shape of the Human Linguistic Capacity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Thomson, G. D. (1880/2017). Evolution and Involution. Fb&c Ltd.Google Scholar
  201. Vahdat, F. (2002). God and Juggernaut: Iran’s Intellectual Encounter with Modernity. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  202. Weir, T. H. (2012). Monism: Science, Philosophy, Religion, and the History of a Worldview. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. White, C. J. (2005). Time and Death: Heidegger’s Analysis of Finitude. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  204. Williamson, O. E. (2000). The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead. Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3), 595–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Witham, L. (2010). Marketplace of the Gods: How Economics Explains Religion. Oxford: OUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Zizek, S. (2001). On Belief. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farhad Gohardani
    • 1
  • Zahra Tizro
    • 2
  1. 1.Independent EconomistYorkUK
  2. 2.University of East London (UEL)LondonUK

Personalised recommendations