Advertisement

Diagnosis in Young Children: The Use of the DC:0-5™ Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders in Infancy and Early Childhood

  • Kathleen MulrooneyEmail author
  • Helen Egger
  • Stephanie Wagner
  • Lauren Knickerbocker
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews the history of diagnosing mental health disorders in infancy and early childhood. The evolution of ZERO TO THREE’s Diagnostic and Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood including DC:0-3, DC:0-3R, and DC:0-5™ is highlighted. These developmentally specific, relationship-based and context-driven classification systems are compared with other key nosologies such as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders fifth edition, DSM-5. The chapter provides an overview for the clinician of DC:0-5 approach and content as well as recommendations about how to become proficient in its use. The chapter contains a review of DC:0-5 principles and approach to diagnosis and will describe the use of the multiaxial system. Each axis is outlined so that clinicians are familiar with not only the range of possible clinical disorders described in Axis I but also how to understand relational context (Axis II), physical conditions and considerations (Axis III), psychosocial stressors (Axis IV), and developmental competence (Axis V) all within the context of cultural consideration. Information about the crosswalks with DSM-5 and ICD 10 for reimbursement of services is included.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angold, A., & Egger, H. (2009). Classification of psychopathology in early childhood. In J. Charles Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (3rd ed., pp. 286–300). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Copeland, et al. (2013). Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammatin into adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 111(21), 7570–7575.Google Scholar
  4. Egger, H., & Angold, A. (2006). Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3/4), 313–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Egger, H., & Emde, R. (2011). Developmentally-sensitive diagnostic criteria for mental health disorders in early childhood: DSM-IV, RDC-PA, and the revised DC:0-3. American Psychologist, 66(2), 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eggbeer, L., Mann, T., & Seibel, N. (2007 Nov). Reflective supervision: Past, present and future. ZERO TO THREE Journal, 28(2), 5–9.Google Scholar
  7. Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M. & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster family assessment device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9(2), 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Felitti et al. (1998). American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–225.Google Scholar
  9. McHale, J. P., & Rasmussen, J. L. (1998). Co-parental and family group-level dynamics during infancy: Early family precursors of child and family functioning during preschool. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 39–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rutter, M. (1993). Stress, coping and development. In N. Garmezy & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, coping and development in children (pp. 1–41). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  11. Parlakian, R., & Siebel, N. L. (2002). Building strong foundations: Practical guidance for promoting the social-emotional development of infants and toddlers. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE.Google Scholar
  12. Pine, D. A. (2002). Advances in developmental science and DSM-V. In M. F. D. J. Kupfer (Ed.), A research agenda for DSM-V (pp. 85–122). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  13. Rutter, M. (1993). Resilience: Some conceptual considerations. Journal of Adolescent Health, 14, 626–663.Google Scholar
  14. Rutter, M. (2012). Classification issues and challenges in child and adolescent psychopathology. International Review of Psychiatry, 24(6), 514–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sarche, M., Tsethilikai, M., Godoy, L., Emde, R., Fleming, C., & Cultural perspectives for assessing infants and young children. University of Colorado Denver, Asnschutz Medical Campus, and Arizona State University, Children's National Health System in ZERO TO THREE. (2016). DC:0–5 diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE.Google Scholar
  16. Sameroff, A. J., & Emde, R. N. (Eds) (1989). Relationship disturbances in early childhood: A developmental approach. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  17. Stern, D. N. (1985). The inter personal world of the infant. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  18. Tseng, W., Guyer, A. E., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Axelson, D., Birmaher, B., Egger, H. L., et al. (2015). Behavior and emotion modulation deficits in preschoolers at risk for bipolar disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 32(5), 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Von Klitzing, K. (2017, July). Should we diagnose babies? Some notes on the launch of the new zero to five classification system. Perspectives. WAIM.org
  20. WAIMH Handbook of Infant Mental Health. (2001). Vol. 1. https://www.waimh.org
  21. Wakschlag, L., Choi, S. W., Carter, A. S., Hullsiek, H., Burns, J., McCarthy, K., et al. (2012). Defining the developmental parameters of temper loss in early childhood: Implications for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(11), 1099–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zeanah, C. H., & Lieberman, A. (2016). Defining relational pathology in early childhood: The diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood DC:0-5 Approach. Infant Mental Health Journal, 37(5), 509–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. ZERO TO THREE. (1994). Diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood: DC:0–3. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE.Google Scholar
  24. ZERO TO THREE. (2005). Diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood: Revised edition (DC:0–3R). Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE.Google Scholar
  25. ZERO TO THREE. (2016). DC:0–5 diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE.Google Scholar
  26. ZERO TO THREE. (2017). The basics of infant and early childhood mental health: A briefing paper. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE.Google Scholar
  27. ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification Task Force. (2017). Should we diagnose babies? No! Should we diagnose disorders in babies? Yes!: Perspectives WAIMH. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen Mulrooney
    • 1
    Email author
  • Helen Egger
    • 2
  • Stephanie Wagner
    • 3
  • Lauren Knickerbocker
    • 4
  1. 1.Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health, Professional Development and Workforce Innovations DepartmentZERO TO THREEWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Director, Child Study CenterHassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU LangoneNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Licensed Clinical Psychologist, Child Study CenterHassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU LangoneNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Clinical Psychologist, Child Study CenterHassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU LangoneNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations