Salivary Gland

  • Danielle Elliott RangeEmail author
Part of the Practical Anatomic Pathology book series (PAP)


The major and minor salivary glands are the sites of numerous inflammatory and neoplastic processes. Molecular advances and the expanding body of literature have led to the reclassification and addition of new entities which will be discussed in this chapter. While ancillary studies are helpful, many of the tumors in this category rely on histomorphologic features for the diagnosis. The biphasic nature of salivary gland tumors are a source of many overlapping morphologies and immunoprofiles. This chapter will focus on the differential diagnosis and distinguishing features to aid in the diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.


Salivary gland Pleomorphic adenomas “Benign” metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma Mucoepidermoid carcinoma Adenoid cystic carcinoma Acinic cell carcinoma Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma Secretory carcinoma Polymorphous adenocarcinoma Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma Basal cell adenomas Myoepithelial tumors Oncocytic lesions of salivary gland Clear cell tumors of the salivary gland Ductal carcinomas High-grade transformation Dedifferentiation Papillary tumors of the salivary gland Primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary gland Benign (nonlymphoid) mesenchymal tumors of salivary gland Primary malignant mesenchymal tumors of salivary gland Major inflammatory lesions of the salivary gland Common lymphomas of salivary gland Nonneoplastic lesions of salivary gland 


  1. 1.
    Ellis GL, Auclair PL. Tumors of the salivary glands. Washington, DC: American Registry of Pathology; 2008. p. 524.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tumours of salivary glands. In: El-Naggar A, Chan JK, Grandis JR, Takata T, Slootweg P, editors. World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumours. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2017. p. 159–202.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seethala RR, Stenman G. Update from the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumours: tumors of the salivary gland. Head Neck Pathol. 2017;11(1):55–67.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lopes M, Barroso KMA, Henriques ACG, Dos Santos JN, Martins MD, de Souza LB. Pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands: retrospective multicentric study of 130 cases with emphasis on histopathological features. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;274(1):543–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tandon A, Jaiswal R, Siddiqui S, Bordoloi B. Keratinizing pleomorphic adenoma: an unusual case report. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2018;22(Suppl 1):S69–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Agaimy A, Ihrler S, Markl B, Lell M, Zenk J, Hartmann A, et al. Lipomatous salivary gland tumors: a series of 31 cases spanning their morphologic spectrum with emphasis on sialolipoma and oncocytic lipoadenoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37(1):128–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haskell HD, Butt KM, Woo SB. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive lipometaplasia: report of three cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29(10):1389–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Skalova A, Starek I, Simpson RH, Kucerova V, Dvorackova J, Curik R, et al. Spindle cell myoepithelial tumours of the parotid gland with extensive lipomatous metaplasia. A report of four cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. Virchows Arch. 2001;439(6):762–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lombardi M, Socciarelli F, Fini G, Leonardi A, Bartolazzi A. Schwannoma-like pleomorphic adenoma: a case report with review of the literature. Head Neck Pathol. 2014;8(2):178–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Altini M, Coleman H, Kienle F. Intra-vascular tumour in pleomorphic adenomas – a report of four cases. Histopathology. 1997;31(1):55–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Skalova A, Altemani A, Di Palma S, Simpson RH, Hosticka L, Andrle P, et al. Pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands with intravascular tumor deposits: a diagnostic pitfall. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36(11):1674–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Batrani M, Kaushal M, Sen AK, Yadav R, Chaturvedi NK. Pleomorphic adenoma with squamous and appendageal metaplasia mimicking mucoepidermoid carcinoma on cytology. Cytojournal. 2008;6:5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seethala RR. Salivary gland tumors: current concepts and controversies. Surg Pathol Clin. 2017;10(1):155–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Knight J, Ratnasingham K. Metastasising pleomorphic adenoma: systematic review. Int J Surg (London, England). 2015;19:137–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marioni G, Marino F, Stramare R, Marchese-Ragona R, Staffieri A. Benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a clinicopathologic puzzle. Head Neck. 2003;25(12):1071–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tarsitano A, Foschini MP, Farneti P, Pasquini E, Marchetti C. Metastasizing “benign” pleomorphic salivary adenoma: a dramatic case-report and literature review. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2014;42(8):1562–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klijanienko J, El-Naggar AK, Servois V, Rodriguez J, Validire P, Vielh P. Clinically aggressive metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma: report of two cases. Head Neck. 1997;19(7):629–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nouraei SA, Ferguson MS, Clarke PM, Sandison A, Sandhu GS, Michaels L, et al. Metastasizing pleomorphic salivary adenoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(7):788–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Di Palma S. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, with particular emphasis on early lesions. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lewis JE, Olsen KD, Sebo TJ. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: pathologic analysis of 73 cases. Hum Pathol. 2001;32(6):596–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Antony J, Gopalan V, Smith RA, Lam AK. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: a comprehensive review of clinical, pathological and molecular data. Head Neck Pathol. 2012;6(1):1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lim CM, Hobson C, Kim S, Johnson JT. Clinical outcome of patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a comparative study from a single tertiary center. Head Neck. 2015;37(4):543–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhao J, Wang J, Yu C, Guo L, Wang K, Liang Z, et al. Prognostic factors affecting the clinical outcome of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in the major salivary gland. World J Surg Oncol. 2013;11(1):180.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brandwein M, Huvos AG, Dardick I, Thomas MJ, Theise ND. Noninvasive and minimally invasive carcinoma ex mixed tumor: a clinicopathologic and ploidy study of 12 patients with major salivary tumors of low (or no?) malignant potential. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996;81(6):655–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kwon MY, Gu M. True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of parotid gland with unusual mesenchymal component: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001;125(6):812–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xin W, Paulino AF. Prognostic factors in malignant mixed tumors of the salivary gland: correlation of immunohistochemical markers with histologic classification. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2002;6(4):205–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mok Y, Min En N, Chwee Ming L, Petersson F. Minimally invasive carcinosarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: a case report and literature review with cytohistological correlation. Head Neck. 2016;38(9):E2483–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Batsakis JG, Luna MA. Histopathologic grading of salivary gland neoplasms: I. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1990;99(10 Pt 1):835–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brandwein MS, Ivanov K, Wallace DI, Hille JJ, Wang B, Fahmy A, et al. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of 80 patients with special reference to histological grading. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25(7):835–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen MM, Roman SA, Sosa JA, Judson BL. Histologic grade as prognostic indicator for mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a population-level analysis of 2400 patients. Head Neck. 2014;36(2):158–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goode RK, Auclair PL, Ellis GL. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the major salivary glands: clinical and histopathologic analysis of 234 cases with evaluation of grading criteria. Cancer. 1998;82(7):1217–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Katabi N, Ghossein R, Ali S, Dogan S, Klimstra D, Ganly I. Prognostic features in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of major salivary glands with emphasis on tumour histologic grading. Histopathology. 2014;65(6):793–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Luk PP, Wykes J, Selinger CI, Ekmejian R, Tay J, Gao K, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of Mastermind-like 2 (MAML2) gene rearrangement detection by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;121(5):530–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McHugh CH, Roberts DB, El-Naggar AK, Hanna EY, Garden AS, Kies MS, et al. Prognostic factors in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands. Cancer. 2012;118(16):3928–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nance MA, Seethala RR, Wang Y, Chiosea SI, Myers EN, Johnson JT, et al. Treatment and survival outcomes based on histologic grading in patients with head and neck mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Cancer. 2008;113(8):2082–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Noda H, Okumura Y, Nakayama T, Miyabe S, Fujiyoshi Y, Hattori H, et al. Clinicopathological significance of MAML2 gene split in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2013;104(1):85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Coca-Pelaz A, Rodrigo JP, Triantafyllou A, Hunt JL, Rinaldo A, Strojan P, et al. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;272(4):799–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Seethala RR. Histologic grading and prognostic biomarkers in salivary gland carcinomas. Adv Anat Pathol. 2011;18(1):29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xu B, Drill E, Ho A, Ho A, Dunn L, Prieto-Granada CN, et al. Predictors of outcome in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study with correlation between MYB fusion and protein expression. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41(10):1422–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    He S, Li P, Zhong Q, Hou L, Yu Z, Huang Z, et al. Clinicopathologic and prognostic factors in adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck minor salivary glands: a clinical analysis of 130 cases. Am J Otolaryngol. 2017;38(2):157–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    DeAngelis AF, Tsui A, Wiesenfeld D, Chandu A. Outcomes of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40(7):710–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    da Cruz Perez DE, de Abreu Alves F, Nobuko Nishimoto I, de Almeida OP, Kowalski LP. Prognostic factors in head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2006;42(2):139–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bhayani MK, Yener M, El-Naggar A, Garden A, Hanna EY, Weber RS, et al. Prognosis and risk factors for early-stage adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary glands. Cancer. 2012;118(11):2872–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brill LB 2nd, Kanner WA, Fehr A, Andren Y, Moskaluk CA, Loning T, et al. Analysis of MYB expression and MYB-NFIB gene fusions in adenoid cystic carcinoma and other salivary neoplasms. Mod Pathol. 2011;24(9):1169–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vander Poorten V, Triantafyllou A, Thompson LD, Bishop J, Hauben E, Hunt J, et al. Salivary acinic cell carcinoma: reappraisal and update. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;273(11):3511–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bishop JA, Yonescu R, Batista D, Eisele DW, Westra WH. Most nonparotid “acinic cell carcinomas” represent mammary analog secretory carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37(7):1053–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schwarz S, Zenk J, Muller M, Ettl T, Wunsch PH, Hartmann A, et al. The many faces of acinic cell carcinomas of the salivary glands: a study of 40 cases relating histological and immunohistological subtypes to clinical parameters and prognosis. Histopathology. 2012;61(3):395–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Patel NR, Sanghvi S, Khan MN, Husain Q, Baredes S, Eloy JA. Demographic trends and disease-specific survival in salivary acinic cell carcinoma: an analysis of 1129 cases. Laryngoscope. 2014;124(1):172–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Said-Al-Naief N, Carlos R, Vance GH, Miller C, Edwards PC. Combined DOG1 and mammaglobin immunohistochemistry is comparable to ETV6-breakapart analysis for differentiating between papillary cystic variants of acinic cell carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol. 2017;25(2):127–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chiosea SI, Griffith C, Assaad A, Seethala RR. Clinicopathological characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands. Histopathology. 2012;61(3):387–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Skalova A, Vanecek T, Sima R, Laco J, Weinreb I, Perez-Ordonez B, et al. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands, containing the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene: a hitherto undescribed salivary gland tumor entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34(5):599–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Skalova A. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland origin: an update and expanded morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of recently described entity. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S30–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Skalova A, Vanecek T, Simpson RH, Laco J, Majewska H, Baneckova M, et al. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: molecular analysis of 25 ETV6 gene rearranged tumors with lack of detection of classical ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript by standard RT-PCR: report of 4 cases harboring ETV6-X gene fusion. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40(1):3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Skalova A, Vanecek T, Majewska H, Laco J, Grossmann P, Simpson RH, et al. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands with high-grade transformation: report of 3 cases with the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion and analysis of TP53, beta-catenin, EGFR, and CCND1 genes. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38(1):23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chiosea SI, Griffith C, Assaad A, Seethala RR. The profile of acinic cell carcinoma after recognition of mammary analog secretory carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36(3):343–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stevens TM, Parekh V. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016;140(9):997–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bishop JA, Yonescu R, Batista D, Begum S, Eisele DW, Westra WH. Utility of mammaglobin immunohistochemistry as a proxy marker for the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation in the diagnosis of salivary mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2013;44(10):1982–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Seethala RR, Johnson JT, Barnes EL, Myers EN. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: the University of Pittsburgh experience. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136(4):385–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Evans HL, Luna MA. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: a study of 40 cases with long-term follow up and an evaluation of the importance of papillary areas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(10):1319–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Patel TD, Vazquez A, Marchiano E, Park RC, Baredes S, Eloy JA. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the head and neck: a population-based study of 460 cases. Laryngoscope. 2015;125(7):1644–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Xu B, Aneja A, Ghossein R, Katabi N. Predictors of outcome in the phenotypic spectrum of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) and cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland (CASG): a retrospective study of 69 patients. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40(11):1526–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rooper L, Sharma R, Bishop JA. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma has a consistent p63+/p40- immunophenotype that helps distinguish it from adenoid cystic carcinoma and cellular pleomorphic adenoma. Head Neck Pathol. 2015;9(1):79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Skalova A, Gnepp DR, Lewis JS Jr, Hunt JL, Bishop JA, Hellquist H, et al. Newly described entities in salivary gland pathology. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41(8):e33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Skalova A, Sima R, Kaspirkova-Nemcova J, Simpson RH, Elmberger G, Leivo I, et al. Cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland origin principally affecting the tongue: characterization of new entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35(8):1168–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wiley R, Kalgi A, Reich R, Freedman P. Histologic and immunohistochemical identification of cribriform adenocarcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;124(1):45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Michal M, Kacerovska D, Kazakov DV. Cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and minor salivary glands: a review. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Seethala RR. Basaloid/blue salivary gland tumors. Mod Pathol. 2017;30(s1):S84–s95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wilson TC, Robinson RA. Basal cell adenocarcinoma and Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathological review of seventy tumors with comparison of morphologic features and growth control indices. Head Neck Pathol. 2015;9(2):205–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhan KY, Lentsch EJ. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of the major salivary glands: a population-level study of 509 cases. Laryngoscope. 2016;126(5):1086–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hirsch DL, Miles C, Dierks E. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland: report of a case and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(11):2385–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Li BB, Zhou CX, Jia SN. Basal cell adenoma of salivary glands with a focal cribriform pattern: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 19 cases of a potential pitfall for diagnosis. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2014;18(1):5–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tian Z, Hu Y, Wang L, Li L, Zhang C, Li J. An unusual cribriform variant of salivary basal cell tumours: a clinicopathological study of 22 cases. Histopathology. 2012;61(5):921–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wang C, Zhang Z, Ge Y, Liu Z, Sun J, Gao Z, et al. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study of 29 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;73(10):1938–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Savera AT, Sloman A, Huvos AG, Klimstra DS. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study of 25 patients. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(6):761–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kane SV, Bagwan IN. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study of 51 cases in a tertiary cancer center. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136(7):702–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kong M, Drill EN, Morris L, West L, Klimstra D, Gonen M, et al. Prognostic factors in myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study of 48 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015;39(7):931–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gnepp DR. Mucinous myoepithelioma, a recently described new myoepithelioma variant. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S85–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Xiao CC, Baker AB, White-Gilbertson SJ, Day TA. Prognostic factors in myoepithelial carcinoma of the major salivary glands. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154(6):1047–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bastaki JM, Purgina BM, Dacic S, Seethala RR. Secretory myoepithelial carcinoma: a histologic and molecular survey and a proposed nomenclature for mucin producing signet ring tumors. Head Neck Pathol. 2014;8(3):250–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Weitzel M, Cohn JE, Spector H. Myoepithelioma of the parotid gland: a case report with review of the literature and classic histopathology. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2017;2017:6036179.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zhou CX, Gao Y. Oncocytoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Oral Oncol. 2009;45(12):e232–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Capone RB, Ha PK, Westra WH, Pilkington TM, Sciubba JJ, Koch WM, et al. Oncocytic neoplasms of the parotid gland: a 16-year institutional review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126(6):657–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Thompson LD, Wenig BM, Ellis GL. Oncocytomas of the submandibular gland. A series of 22 cases and a review of the literature. Cancer. 1996;78(11):2281–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nakada M, Nishizaki K, Akagi H, Masuda Y, Yoshino T. Oncocytic carcinoma of the submandibular gland: a case report and literature review. J Oral Pathol Med. 1998;27(5):225–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ellis GL. “Clear cell” oncocytoma of salivary gland. Hum Pathol. 1988;19(7):862–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ozolek JA, Bastacky SI, Myers EN, Hunt JL. Immunophenotypic comparison of salivary gland oncocytoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2005;115(6):1097–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Seethala RR. An update on grading of salivary gland carcinomas. Head Neck Pathol. 2009;3(1):69–77.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Seethala RR. Oncocytic and apocrine epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma: novel variants of a challenging tumor. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bishop JA, Cowan ML, Shum CH, Westra WH. MAML2 rearrangements in variant forms of mucoepidermoid carcinoma: ancillary diagnostic testing for the ciliated and warthin-like variants. Am J Surg Pathol. 2018;42(1):130–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Weinreb I, Seethala RR, Perez-Ordonez B, Chetty R, Hoschar AP, Hunt JL. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma: clinicopathologic description in a series of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33(3):409–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Weinreb I. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland: a review and update. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S20–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wang B, Brandwein M, Gordon R, Robinson R, Urken M, Zarbo RJ. Primary salivary clear cell tumors – a diagnostic approach: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 20 patients with clear cell carcinoma, clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2002;126(6):676–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Solar AA, Schmidt BL, Jordan RC. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma: case series and comprehensive review of the literature. Cancer. 2009;115(1):75–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Daniele L, Nikolarakos D, Keenan J, Schaefer N, Lam AK. Clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified/hyalinising clear cell carcinoma of the salivary gland: the current nomenclature, clinical/pathological characteristics and management. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016;102:55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Albergotti WG, Bilodeau EA, Byrd JK, Mims MM, Lee S, Kim S. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the head and neck: case series and update. Head Neck. 2016;38(3):426–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Losito NS, Botti G, Ionna F, Pasquinelli G, Minenna P, Bisceglia M. Clear-cell myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of two cases involving the submandibular gland with review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract. 2008;204(5):335–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Skalova A, Weinreb I, Hyrcza M, Simpson RH, Laco J, Agaimy A, et al. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015;39(3):338–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vazquez A, Patel TD, D’Aguillo CM, Abdou RY, Farver W, Baredes S, et al. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: an analysis of 246 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;153(4):569–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Luk PP, Weston JD, Yu B, Selinger CI, Ekmejian R, Eviston TJ, et al. Salivary duct carcinoma: clinicopathologic features, morphologic spectrum, and somatic mutations. Head Neck. 2016;38(Suppl 1):E1838–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jaehne M, Roeser K, Jaekel T, Schepers JD, Albert N, Loning T. Clinical and immunohistologic typing of salivary duct carcinoma: a report of 50 cases. Cancer. 2005;103(12):2526–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Williams L, Thompson LD, Seethala RR, Weinreb I, Assaad AM, Tuluc M, et al. Salivary duct carcinoma: the predominance of apocrine morphology, prevalence of histologic variants, and androgen receptor expression. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015;39(5):705–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Jayaprakash V, Merzianu M, Warren GW, Arshad H, Hicks WL Jr, Rigual NR, et al. Survival rates and prognostic factors for infiltrating salivary duct carcinoma: analysis of 228 cases from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database. Head Neck. 2014;36(5):694–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Brandwein-Gensler M, Hille J, Wang BY, Urken M, Gordon R, Wang LJ, et al. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma: description of 16 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28(8):1040–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cheuk W, Miliauskas JR, Chan JK. Intraductal carcinoma of the oral cavity: a case report and a reappraisal of the concept of pure ductal carcinoma in situ in salivary duct carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28(2):266–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Delgado R, Klimstra D, Albores-Saavedra J. Low grade salivary duct carcinoma. A distinctive variant with a low grade histology and a predominant intraductal growth pattern. Cancer. 1996;78(5):958–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kuo YJ, Weinreb I, Perez-Ordonez B. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Weinreb I, Tabanda-Lichauco R, Van der Kwast T, Perez-Ordonez B. Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland: report of 3 cases with marked apocrine differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30(8):1014–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Simpson RH, Desai S, Di Palma S. Salivary duct carcinoma in situ of the parotid gland. Histopathology. 2008;53(4):416–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Deng R, Tang E, Yang X, Huang X, Hu Q. Salivary adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathological study of 28 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;113(5):655–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Li J, Wang BY, Nelson M, Li L, Hu Y, Urken ML, et al. Salivary adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified: a collection of orphans. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128(12):1385–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zhan KY, Huang AT, Khaja SF, Bell D, Day TA. Predictors of survival in parotid adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified: a National Cancer Database study of 3155 patients. Head Neck. 2016;38(8):1208–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Nagao T. “Dedifferentiation” and high-grade transformation in salivary gland carcinomas. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Seethala RR, Barnes EL, Hunt JL. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: a review of the clinicopathologic spectrum and immunophenotypic characteristics in 61 tumors of the salivary glands and upper aerodigestive tract. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31(1):44–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hellquist H, Skalova A, Barnes L, Cardesa A, Thompson LD, Triantafyllou A, et al. Cervical lymph node metastasis in high-grade transformation of head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma: a collective international review. Adv Ther. 2016;33(3):357–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Roy P, Bullock MJ, Perez-Ordonez B, Dardick I, Weinreb I. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with high grade transformation. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34(9):1258–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fonseca I, Soares J. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands. A study of 22 cases. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1993;422(5):389–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Thompson LD, Aslam MN, Stall JN, Udager AM, Chiosea S, McHugh JB. Clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic characterization of 25 cases of acinic cell carcinoma with high-grade transformation. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10(2):152–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Simpson RH, Pereira EM, Ribeiro AC, Abdulkadir A, Reis-Filho JS. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands with transformation to high-grade carcinoma. Histopathology. 2002;41(3):250–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Costa AF, Altemani A, Garcia-Inclan C, Fresno F, Suarez C, Llorente JL, et al. Analysis of MYB oncogene in transformed adenoid cystic carcinomas reveals distinct pathways of tumor progression. Lab Investig. 2014;94(6):692–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Brannon RB, Sciubba JJ, Giulani M. Ductal papillomas of salivary gland origin: a report of 19 cases and a review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;92(1):68–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hegarty DJ, Hopper C, Speight PM. Inverted ductal papilloma of minor salivary glands. J Oral Pathol Med. 1994;23(7):334–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kubota N, Suzuki K, Kawai Y, Mizunuma H, Lee U, Konishi H, et al. Inverted ductal papilloma of minor salivary gland: case report with immunohistochemical study and literature review. Pathol Int. 2006;56(8):457–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Aikawa T, Kishino M, Masuda T, Isomura ET, Tanaka S, Namikawa M, et al. Intraductal papilloma arising from sublingual minor salivary gland: case report and immunohistochemical study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107(5):e34–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Loehn B, Sutton C, Jastram-Belcher J, Harton A, Anderson D, Walvekar RR. Sialadenoma papilliferum of the parotid gland: case report and review of literature. Head Neck. 2013;35(3):E74–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ide F, Kikuchi K, Kusama K, Kanazawa H. Sialadenoma papilliferum with potentially malignant features. J Clin Pathol. 2010;63(4):362–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Tjioe KC, de Lima HG, Thompson LD, Lara VS, Damante JH, de Oliveira-Santos C. Papillary cystadenoma of minor salivary glands: report of 11 cases and review of the English literature. Head Neck Pathol. 2015;9(3):354–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Akhtar K, Ray PS, Sherwani R, Siddiqui S. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the parotid gland: a rare entity. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;1-4Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Batsakis JG, McClatchey KD, Johns M, Regazi J. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. Arch Otolaryngol. 1976;102(6):355–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Flynn MB, Maguire S, Martinez S, Tesmer T. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the parotid gland: the importance of correct histological diagnosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999;6(8):768–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gaughan RK, Olsen KD, Lewis JE. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;118(8):798–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Wang H, Hoda RS, Faquin W, Rossi ED, Hotchandani N, Sun T, et al. FNA biopsy of secondary nonlymphomatous malignancies in salivary glands: a multi-institutional study of 184 cases. Cancer Cytopathol. 2017;125(2):91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Nuyens M, Schupbach J, Stauffer E, Zbaren P. Metastatic disease to the parotid gland. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135(6):844–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bron LP, Traynor SJ, McNeil EB, O’Brien CJ. Primary and metastatic cancer of the parotid: comparison of clinical behavior in 232 cases. Laryngoscope. 2003;113(6):1070–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Franzen AM, Gunzel T, Lieder A. Parotid gland metastases of distant primary tumours: a diagnostic challenge. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2016;43(2):187–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Malata CM, Camilleri IG, McLean NR, Piggott TA, Soames JV. Metastatic tumours of the parotid gland. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1998;36(3):190–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Seifert G, Hennings K, Caselitz J. Metastatic tumors to the parotid and submandibular glands – analysis and differential diagnosis of 108 cases. Pathol Res Pract. 1986;181(6):684–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Spreafico R, Nicoletti G, Ferrario F, Scanziani R, Grasso M. Parotid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2008;28(5):266–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    McHugh JB, Hoschar AP, Dvorakova M, Parwani AV, Barnes EL, Seethala RR. p63 immunohistochemistry differentiates salivary gland oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma from metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Head Neck Pathol. 2007;1(2):123–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Nagao T, Gaffey TA, Olsen KD, Serizawa H, Lewis JE. Small cell carcinoma of the major salivary glands: clinicopathologic study with emphasis on cytokeratin 20 immunoreactivity and clinical outcome. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28(6):762–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mills SE. Neuroectodermal neoplasms of the head and neck with emphasis on neuroendocrine carcinomas. Mod Pathol. 2002;15(3):264–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kusafuka K, Ferlito A, Lewis JS Jr, Woolgar JA, Rinaldo A, Slootweg PJ, et al. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck. Oral Oncol. 2012;48(3):211–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kao HL, Chang WC, Li WY, Chia-Heng Li A, Fen-Yau LA. Head and neck large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma should be separated from atypical carcinoid on the basis of different clinical features, overall survival, and pathogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36(2):185–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Xu B, Chetty R, Perez-Ordonez B. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the head and neck: some suggestions for the new WHO classification of head and neck tumors. Head Neck Pathol. 2014;8(1):24–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ata-Ali J, Zurriaga O, Alberich C. Incidence and survival rates for malignant salivary gland tumors. J Oral Sci. 2016;58(1):67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Guzzo M, Locati LD, Prott FJ, Gatta G, McGurk M, Licitra L. Major and minor salivary gland tumors. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2010;74(2):134–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Haderlein M, Scherl C, Semrau S, Lettmaier S, Uter W, Neukam FW, et al. High-grade histology as predictor of early distant metastases and decreased disease-free survival in salivary gland cancer irrespective of tumor subtype. Head Neck. 2016;38(Suppl 1):E2041–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lima RA, Tavares MR, Dias FL, Kligerman J, Nascimento MF, Barbosa MM, et al. Clinical prognostic factors in malignant parotid gland tumors. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133(5):702–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Terhaard CH, Lubsen H, Van der Tweel I, Hilgers FJ, Eijkenboom WM, Marres HA, et al. Salivary gland carcinoma: independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival: results of the Dutch head and neck oncology cooperative group. Head Neck. 2004;26(8):681–92; discussion 92–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Xiao CC, Zhan KY, White-Gilbertson SJ, Day TA. Predictors of nodal metastasis in parotid malignancies: a national cancer data base study of 22,653 patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154(1):121–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Abrahao AC, Santos Netto Jde N, Pires FR, Santos TC, Cabral MG. Clinicopathological characteristics of tumours of the intraoral minor salivary glands in 170 Brazilian patients. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;54(1):30–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Buchner A, Merrell PW, Carpenter WM. Relative frequency of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors: a study of 380 cases from northern California and comparison to reports from other parts of the world. J Oral Pathol Med. 2007;36(4):207–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Jansisyanont P, Blanchaert RH Jr, Ord RA. Intraoral minor salivary gland neoplasm: a single institution experience of 80 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;31(3):257–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Pires FR, Pringle GA, de Almeida OP, Chen SY. Intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors: a clinicopathological study of 546 cases. Oral Oncol. 2007;43(5):463–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Speight PM. Update on diagnostic difficulties in lesions of the minor salivary glands. Head Neck Pathol. 2007;1(1):55–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Yih WY, Kratochvil FJ, Stewart JC. Intraoral minor salivary gland neoplasms: review of 213 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63(6):805–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bentz BG, Hughes CA, Ludemann JP, Maddalozzo J. Masses of the salivary gland region in children. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;126(12):1435–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cockerill CC, Gross BC, Contag S, Rein S, Moore EJ, Olsen KD, et al. Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors: 60 year follow up. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;88:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    da Cruz Perez DE, Pires FR, Alves FA, Almeida OP, Kowalski LP. Salivary gland tumors in children and adolescents: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of fifty-three cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;68(7):895–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lack EE, Upton MP. Histopathologic review of salivary gland tumors in childhood. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988;114(8):898–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Luna MA, Batsakis JG, El-Naggar AK. Salivary gland tumors in children. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1991;100(10):869–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Sultan I, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Al-Sharabati S, Guzzo M, Casanova M, Ferrari A. Salivary gland carcinomas in children and adolescents: a population-based study, with comparison to adult cases. Head Neck. 2011;33(10):1476–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Xu B, Aneja A, Ghossein R, Katabi N. Salivary gland epithelial neoplasms in pediatric population: a single-institute experience with a focus on the histologic spectrum and clinical outcome. Hum Pathol. 2017;67:37–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Carlson ER, Ord RA. Benign pediatric salivary gland lesions. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin N Am. 2016;28(1):67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kupferman ME, de la Garza GO, Santillan AA, Williams MD, Varghese BT, Huh W, et al. Outcomes of pediatric patients with malignancies of the major salivary glands. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17(12):3301–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Shapiro NL, Bhattacharyya N. Clinical characteristics and survival for major salivary gland malignancies in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134(4):631–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Thompson LD. Hemangioma of the parotid. Ear Nose Throat J. 2002;81(11):769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Agaimy A. Fat-containing salivary gland tumors: a review. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S90–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Guraya SS, Prayson RA. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising in salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016;23:38–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Cho KJ, Ro JY, Choi J, Choi SH, Nam SY, Kim SY. Mesenchymal neoplasms of the major salivary glands: clinicopathological features of 18 cases. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265(Suppl 1):S47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Takahama A Jr, Leon JE, de Almeida OP, Kowalski LP. Nonlymphoid mesenchymal tumors of the parotid gland. Oral Oncol. 2008;44(10):970–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Cockerill CC, Daram S, El-Naggar AK, Hanna EY, Weber RS, Kupferman ME. Primary sarcomas of the salivary glands: case series and literature review. Head Neck. 2013;35(11):1551–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Luna MA, Tortoledo ME, Ordonez NG, Frankenthaler RA, Batsakis JG. Primary sarcomas of the major salivary glands. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117(3):302–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Chandan VS, Fung EK, Woods CI, de la Roza G. Primary pleomorphic liposarcoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Otolaryngol. 2004;25(6):432–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Fanburg-Smith JC, Furlong MA, Childers EL. Oral and salivary gland angiosarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Mod Pathol. 2003;16(3):263–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Rigante M, Visocchi M, Petrone G, Mule A, Bussu F. Synovial sarcoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2011;31(1):43–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Mahmood U, Nguyen JD, Chang J, Gu M, Wong BJ. Atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma of the parotid gland: case report and literature review. Ear Nose Throat J. 2009;88(10):E10–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Chi AC, Lambert PR 3rd, Richardson MS, Neville BW. Oral mucoceles: a clinicopathologic review of 1,824 cases, including unusual variants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69(4):1086–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Maiorano E, Favia G, Viale G. Lymphoepithelial cysts of salivary glands: an immunohistochemical study of HIV-related and HIV-unrelated lesions. Hum Pathol. 1998;29(3):260–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Wu L, Cheng J, Maruyama S, Yamazaki M, Tsuneki M, Lu Y, et al. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the parotid gland: its possible histopathogenesis based on clinicopathologic analysis of 64 cases. Hum Pathol. 2009;40(5):683–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    de Brito Monteiro BV, Bezerra TM, da Silveira EJ, Nonaka CF, da Costa Miguel MC. Histopathological review of 667 cases of oral mucoceles with emphasis on uncommon histopathological variations. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016;21:44–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stojanov IJ, Malik UA, Woo SB. Intraoral salivary duct cyst: clinical and histopathologic features of 177 cases. Head Neck Pathol. 2017;11(4):469–76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Kitagawa S, Zen Y, Harada K, Sasaki M, Sato Y, Minato H, et al. Abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration characterizes chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (Kuttner’s tumor). Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29(6):783–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Geyer JT, Ferry JA, Harris NL, Stone JH, Zukerberg LR, Lauwers GY, et al. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (Kuttner tumor) is an IgG4-associated disease. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34(2):202–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ferry JA, Deshpande V. IgG4-related disease in the head and neck. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2012;29(4):235–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Hong X, Li W, Xie XY, Zhang ZY, Chen Y, Gao Y, et al. Differential diagnosis of IgG4-related sialadenitis, primary Sjogren syndrome, and chronic obstructive submandibular sialadenitis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;55(2):179–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Deshpande V, Zen Y, Chan JK, Yi EE, Sato Y, Yoshino T, et al. Consensus statement on the pathology of IgG4-related disease. Mod Pathol. 2012;25(9):1181–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Carlson DL. Necrotizing sialometaplasia: a practical approach to the diagnosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133(5):692–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Brannon RB, Fowler CB, Hartman KS. Necrotizing sialometaplasia. A clinicopathologic study of sixty-nine cases and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991;72(3):317–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Agale SV, D’Costa GF, Hastak MS, Shedge RT. Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the salivary gland: a spectrum of lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with transformation to high-grade lymphoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;53(2):364–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Brown NA, Elenitoba-Johnson KS. Update from the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumours: hematolymphoid tumours. Head Neck Pathol. 2017;11(1):96–109.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Ellis GL. Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: malignant and benign. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12(7):E479–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Harris NL. Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands. Am J Clin Pathol. 1999;111(1 Suppl 1):S94–103.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Thakral B, Zhou J, Medeiros LJ. Extranodal hematopoietic neoplasms and mimics in the head and neck: an update. Hum Pathol. 2015;46(8):1079–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Weber AL, Rahemtullah A, Ferry JA. Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the head and neck: clinical, pathologic, and imaging evaluation. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2003;13(3):371–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Canas Marques R, Felix A. Invasive carcinoma arising from sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the salivary gland. Virchows Arch. 2014;464(5):621–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Espinosa CA, Rua L, Torres HE, Fernandez Del Valle A, Fernandes RP, Devicente JC. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland: a systematic review and report of 2 new cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;75(5):984–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Gnepp DR. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the salivary gland: a lesion that may be associated with dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Adv Anat Pathol. 2003;10(4):218–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Gnepp DR, Wang LJ, Brandwein-Gensler M, Slootweg P, Gill M, Hille J. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the salivary gland: a report of 16 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30(2):154–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Petersson F. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of salivary glands: a review with some emphasis on intraductal epithelial proliferations. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(Suppl 1):S97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Petersson F, Tan PH, Hwang JS. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland: report of a bifocal, paucicystic variant with ductal carcinoma in situ and pronounced stromal distortion mimicking invasive carcinoma. Head Neck Pathol. 2011;5(2):188–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Skalova A, Michal M, Simpson RH, Starek I, Pradna J, Pfaltz M. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of parotid gland with dysplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Report of three cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination. Virchows Arch. 2002;440(1):29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Smith BC, Ellis GL, Slater LJ, Foss RD. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of major salivary glands. A clinicopathologic analysis of nine cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1996;20(2):161–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Gillenwater AM, Frank SJ, Fatani H, El-Naggar AK. Primary intestinal-like adenocarcinoma of major salivary glands: 2 instances of previously undocumented phenotype. Head Neck. 2013;35(8):E234–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Sams RN, Gnepp DR. P63 expression can be used in differential diagnosis of salivary gland acinic cell and mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(1):64–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Badlani J, Gupta R, Smith J, Ashford B, Ch’ng S, Veness M, et al. Metastases to the parotid gland – a review of the clinicopathological evolution, molecular mechanisms and management. Surg Oncol. 2018;27(1):44–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Bell D, Hanna EY, Weber RS, DeMonte F, Triantafyllou A, Lewis JS Jr, et al. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal region. Head Neck. 2016;38(Suppl 1):E2259–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Shah K, Perez-Ordonez B. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal tract: neuroendocrine carcinomas and olfactory neuroblastoma. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10(1):85–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Thompson ED, Stelow EB, Mills SE, Westra WH, Bishop JA. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck: a clinicopathologic series of 10 cases with an emphasis on HPV status. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40(4):471–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Chhieng DC, Paulino AF. Basaloid tumors of the salivary glands. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2002;6(6):364–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Duke Health, Duke University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Section of Head and Neck and Endocrine PathologyDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations