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Epigenetics and Common Non Communicable Disease

  • Mohammad Amin TabatabaiefarEmail author
  • Roshanak S. Sajjadi
  • Sina Narrei
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1121)

Abstract

Common Non communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, schizophrenia, and diabetes, have become the major cause of death in the world. They result from an interaction between genetics, lifestyle and environmental factors. The prevalence of NCDs are increasing, and researchers hopes to find efficient strategies to predict, prevent and treat them. Given the role of epigenome in the etiology of NCDs, insight into epigenetic mechanisms may offer opportunities to predict, detect, and prevent disease long before its clinical onset.

Epigenetic alterations are exerted through several mechanisms including: chromatin modification, DNA methylation and controlling gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). In this chapter, we will discuss about NCDs, with focus on cancer, diabetes and schizophrenia. Different epigenetic mechanisms, categorized into two main groups DNA methylation and chromatin modifications and non-coding RNAs, will be separately discussed for these NCDs.

Keywords

Epigenetics Chromatin modifications DNA methylation ncRNA Cancer Schizophrenia Diabetes 

Abbreviations

CIMP

Aberrant CpG island methylator phenotype

CLL

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

DD3

Differential display code 3

DOHaD

Developmental origins of health and disease

ESRD

End stage renal disease

HATs

Histone acetyltransferases

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HDACs

Histone deacetyltransferases

IR

Insulin resistance

IRF8

Interferon Regulatory Factor 8

ITGB2

Integrin Subunit Beta 2 (ITGB2)

lncRNAs

Long non-coding RNAs

MALAT1

Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1

miRNAs

Micro RNA

MWAS

Methylome-wide association study

ncRNA

Non-coding RNA

NR3C1

Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 3 Group C Member 1

NSCLC

Non-small cell lung cancer

PAX4

Paired box 4

PCA3

Prostate cancer 3

PTMs

Post transcriptional modifications

RNAi

RNA interference

SCC

Squamous cell carcinoma

SPI1

Spi-1

T1DM

Type I diabetes Mellitus

T2DM

Type II diabetes Mellitus

TZD

Thiazolidinedione

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Roshanak S. Sajjadi
    • 1
  • Sina Narrei
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of MedicineIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Pediatric Inherited Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable DiseaseIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Genetics DepartmentErythron Pathobiology and Genetics labIsfahanIran

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