Advertisement

Graphene and Allies as a Part of Metallic Photocatalysts

  • Annelise Kopp AlvesEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 29)

Abstract

Metallic photocatalysts are materials that present a metallic behaviour relating to the mobility of the electron in their energy band. Conduction and valence bands in metallic conductors are very close or overlap; thus these materials have a small or absent energy gap separating the occupied and empty energy levels. Graphene, for its turn, is an atom-thick sheet of sp2-hybridized carbons that is considered a zero bandgap semimetal material. It has an electrical band structure that permits a very rapid conduction, i.e. electrons have high mobility with little scattering, thus acting like an electron pool, promoting charge separation and rapid transfer in photocatalytic applications. In this chapter a brief review of the main methods to obtain graphene and derivative graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide is presented, alongside with examples of their use in photocatalysis.

Keywords

Graphene Reduced graphene oxide Photocatalysis Metallic photocatalysts 

References

  1. Bonaccorso F, Lombardo A, Hasan T, Sun Z, Colombo L, Ferrari AC (2012) Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals. Mater Today 15:564–589.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-7021(13)70014-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dhar S, Roy Barman A, Ni GX, Wang X, Xu XF, Zheng Y, Tripathy S, Ariando AR, Loh KP, Rubhausen M, Castro Neto AH, Őzyilmaz B, Venkatesan T (2011) A new route to graphene layers by selective laser ablation. AIP Adv 1:022109.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3584204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Emtsev KV, Bostwick A, Horn K, Jobst J, Kellogg GL, Ley L, McChesney JL, Ohta T, Reshanov SA, Röhrl J, Rotenberg E, Schmid AK, Waldmann D, Weber HB, Seyller T (2009) Towards wafer-size graphene layers by atmospheric pressure graphitization of silicon carbide. Nat Mater 8:203–207.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat2382 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hadi A, Zahirifar J, Karimi-Sabet J, Dastbaz A (2018) Graphene nanosheets preparation using magnetic nanoparticle assisted liquid phase exfoliation of graphite: the coupled effect of ultrasound and wedging nanoparticles. Ultrason Sonochem 44:204–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.02.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Han C, Zhang N, Xu Y-J (2016) Structural diversity of graphene materials and their multifarious roles in heterogeneous photocatalysis. Nano Today 11:351–372.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2016.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hummers WS Jr, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80:1339–1339.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01539a017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kumar D, Lee A, Lee T, Lim M, Lim D-K (2016) Ultrafast and efficient transport of hot plasmonic electrons by graphene for Pt free, highly efficient visible-light responsive photocatalyst. Nano Lett 16:1760–1767.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04764 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li X, Cai W, An J, Kim S, Nah J, Yang D, Piner R, Velamakanni A, Jung I, Tutuc E, Banerjee SK, Colombo L, Ruoff RS (2009) Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science 234:1312–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1171245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Moldt T, Eckmann A, Klar P, Morozov SV, Zhukov AA, Novoselov KS, Casiraghi C (2011) High-yield production and transfer of graphene flakes obtained by anodic bonding. ACS Nano 5:7700–7706.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn202293f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102896 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oliva J, Martinez AI, Oliva AI, Garcia CR, Martinez-Luevanos A, Garcia-Lobato M, Ochoa-Valiente R, Berlanga A (2018) Flexible graphene composites for removal of methylene blue dye-contaminant from water. Appl Surf Sci 436:739–746.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.12.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pei S, Cheng H-M (2012) The reduction of graphene oxide. Carbon 50:3210–3228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.11.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Putri LK, Ong W-J, Chang WS, Chai S-P (2015) Heteroatom doped graphene in photocatalysis: a review. Appl Surf Sci 358:2–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.08.177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Singh V, Joung D, Zhai L, Das S, Khondaker SI, Seal S (2011) Graphene based materials: past, present and future. Prog Mater Sci 56:1178–1271.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2011.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wang C, Astruc D (2018) Recent developments of metallic nanoparticle-graphene nanocatalysts. Prog Mater Sci 94:306–383.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2018.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wang Z, Yan S, Sun Y, Xiong T, Dong F, Zhang W (2017) Bi metal sphere/graphene oxide nanohybrids with enhanced direct plasmonic photocatalysis. Appl Catal B Environ 214:148–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.05.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Xu X, Randorn C, Efstathiou P, Irvine JTS (2012) A red metallic oxide photocatalyst. Nat Mater 11:595–598.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat3312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhang W, Li Y, Zeng X, Peng S (2015) Synergetic effect of metal nickel and graphene as a cocatalyst for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution via dye sensitization. Sci Rep 5:10589.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations