Field Experiment on the Performance of an Android-Based Opportunistic Network

  • Andre IppischEmail author
  • Philipp Brühn
  • Kalman Graffi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11339)


Android smartphones ubiquitously available, they are mobile and have sophisticated communication opportunities. With Opportunistic Networks, we can use the wireless connectivity of smartphones and other smart devices to relay messages in store-carry-forward fashion from one node to another to implement novel data-oriented applications. We can use these networks for high-bandwidth local data transfers, in cases with low or no connectivity, such as in third-world countries or remote areas, or in cases where communication should not leave any traces. In the last years, we developed an Android application for Opportunistic Networking, named opptain, that can be deployed on off-the-shelf unrooted smartphones and smart devices, enabling to harness this idea by simply installing an app. As the quality of such networks is essential, we implemented a test framework for Android-based opportunistic networks to run tests and aggregate results automatically. In this paper, we present the evaluation results of a field experiment we conducted with the opptain application, in which we used 26 devices to evaluate the outcome typical use cases. The tests show that the expected quality is reached and provides robust performance for various applications. In total, opptain, the testing environment, as well as the results themselves, are promising; for an office scenario in which interference is more common than in other possible scenarios, we achieved encouraging results.


Opportunistic Networks Android Smartphones Smart devices Field tests Measurement study 


  1. 1.
    Cheraghi, A., Amft, T., Sati, S., Hagemeister, P., Graffi, K.: The state of simulation tools for P2P networks on mobile ad-hoc and opportunistic networks. In: IEEE ICCCN 2016: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks, pp. 1–7 (2016)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Graffi, K.: PeerfactSim.KOM: a P2P system simulator - experiences and lessons learned. In: IEEE P2P 2011: Proceedings of the International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, pp. 154–155 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ippisch, A., Graffi, K.: Infrastructure mode based opportunistic networks on android devices. In: 2017 IEEE 31st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), pp. 454–461 (2017).
  4. 4.
    Keränen, A., Ott, J., Kärkkäinen, T.: The ONE simulator for DTN protocol evaluation. In: SIMUTools 2009: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques. ICST, New York, NY, USA (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lindgren, A., Doria, A., Davies, E., Grasic, S.: RFC 6693: probabilistic routing protocol for intermittently connected networks. IETF (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lindgren, A., Doria, A., Lindblom, J., Ek, M.: Networking in the land of northern lights: two years of experiences from DTN system deployments. In: Wireless Networks and Systems for Developing Regions (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mühlhäuser, M.: Handbook of Research on Ubiquitous Computing Technology for Real Time Enterprises. Handbook of Research On... Series. IGI Global (2008).
  8. 8.
    Spyropoulos, T., Psounis, K.: Spray and wait: an efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Delay-Tolerant Networking (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spyropoulos, T., Psounis, K., Raghavendra, C.S.: Spray and focus: efficient mobility-assisted routing for heterogeneous and correlated mobility. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications - Workshops (PerCom Workshops), pp. 79–85 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vahdat, A., Becker, D.: Epidemic routing for partially-connected ad hoc networks. Technique report, Department of Computer Science, Duke University, USA, vol. 20, no. 6 (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heinrich-Heine-University DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany

Personalised recommendations