From Inclusion to Exclusion: Marginalization Across Nations

  • Tsega EtefaEmail author
Part of the African Histories and Modernities book series (AHAM)


Starting with the incorporation of Darfur into colonial Sudan, the incorporation of Benishangul-Gumuz to Ethiopia, and that of coastal Kenya to British Kenya, this chapter argues that incorporation was not followed by effective government administration and that these regions were considered as different categories from the center. Although they joined the center, their histories of gravity belong across the border to their neighboring countries (Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia, respectively) and they were effectively isolated, neglected, marginalized, and severely underdeveloped.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Colgate UniversityHamiltonUSA

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