Thinking About PPFM Bacteria as a Model of Seed Endophytes: Who Are They? Where Did They Come from? What Are They Doing for the Plant? What Can They Do for Us?

  • Mark A. HollandEmail author


Bacteria in the genus Methylobacterium (PPFM bacteria) are distributed globally and are associated with algae, mosses, ferns, liverworts, gymnosperms and angiosperms as co-evolved symbionts. As such, they share significantly in plant metabolism, stimulating plant growth and development through the production of plant hormones and vitamins. This chapter discusses the PPFMs as model plant symbionts and considers how their symbiotic relationship with plants and be exploited to our benefit.


Methylobacterium spp. PPFM bacteria Plant/microbe symbiosis 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologySalisbury UniversitySalisburyUSA

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