Trichoderma: Biodiversity, Ecological Significances, and Industrial Applications

  • Sushma Sharma
  • Divjot Kour
  • Kusam Lata Rana
  • Anu Dhiman
  • Shiwani Thakur
  • Priyanka Thakur
  • Sapna Thakur
  • Neelam Thakur
  • Surya Sudheer
  • Neelam Yadav
  • Ajar Nath YadavEmail author
  • Ali A. Rastegari
  • Karan Singh
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


The genus Trichoderma is ubiquitous in the environment, particularly in soils. Trichoderma species could be readily isolated from soil by all available conventional methods, largely because they grow rapidly and also because of their abundant conidiation. Based on the phylogenetic study, several researchers reported that Trichoderma and Hypocrea form a single holomorph genus, within which two major clades can be distinguished. The species of Trichoderma possess diverse biotechnological applications such as they act as biofungicide for controlling various plant diseases, as biofertilizers for plant growth promotion. Trichoderma secrete diverse volatile compounds including alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, ethylene, hydrogen cyanide, and monoterpenes, as well as nonvolatile compounds including peptaibols and diketopiperazine-like gliotoxin and gliovirin which are known to exhibit antibiotic activity. The interaction of Trichoderma with the host plant results in parasitism/predation; production of antibiotic is combined with mycoparasitism (penetration and infection), production of cell wall-degrading enzymes or lytic enzymes, competition for nutrients or for space, and establishment of induced resistance in the plant.


Biodiversity Extreme habitats Industrial application Microbiome Trichoderma 



The authors are grateful to Prof. Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal, Vice Chancellor, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India for providing infrastructural facilities and constant encouragement.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sushma Sharma
    • 1
  • Divjot Kour
    • 2
  • Kusam Lata Rana
    • 2
  • Anu Dhiman
    • 3
  • Shiwani Thakur
    • 1
  • Priyanka Thakur
    • 1
  • Sapna Thakur
    • 2
  • Neelam Thakur
    • 4
  • Surya Sudheer
    • 5
  • Neelam Yadav
    • 6
  • Ajar Nath Yadav
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ali A. Rastegari
    • 7
  • Karan Singh
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of AgricultureAkal College of Agriculture, Eternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyAkal College of Agriculture, Eternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourIndia
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyAkal College of Basic Sciences, Eternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourIndia
  4. 4.Department of ZoologyAkal College of Basic Sciences, Eternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourIndia
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry and BiotechnologyERA Chair of Green Chemistry, Tallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia
  6. 6.Gopi Nath P.G. College, Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal UniversityDeoli-Salamatpur, GhazipurIndia
  7. 7.Department of Molecular and Cell Biochemistry, Falavarjan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran
  8. 8.Department of ChemistryAkal College of Basic Sciences, Eternal UniversityBaru Sahib, SirmourIndia

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