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Discovery of New Extremophilic Enzymes from Diverse Fungal Communities

  • Chanda Parulekar Berde
  • Vikrant Balkrishna Berde
  • G. Mohana Sheela
  • Pallaval Veerabramhachari
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

Extremophiles are microorganisms that are found in environments of extreme temperature (−2–15, 60–110 °C), ionic strength (2–5 M NaCl), or pH (<4, >9). Extremophiles are a source of enzymes (extremozymes) with extreme stability, and the application of these enzymes as biocatalysts has attracted attention because they are stable and active under conditions at which the normal enzymes do not work. These microorganisms are capable of surviving under extreme conditions in non-conventional environments, and their enzymes are adapted to these conditions. The properties of their enzymes have been optimized for these conditions. Extremophiles, particularly those from the Archaea, have novel metabolic pathways; hence, they serve as a source of enzymes with novel activities and applications. Among eukaryotes, fungi are the most versatile and ecologically successful phylogenetic lineage. With the exception of hyperthermophily, they adapt well to extreme environments. Fungi are found to live in acidic and metal-enriched waters from mining regions, alkaline conditions, hot and cold deserts, and the deep ocean and in hypersaline regions such as the Dead Sea. Extremophilic enzymes from fungi have been sought for because of the increasing industrial demands for biocatalysts that can cope with industrial process needs. Extremozymes have a great economic potential in many industrial processes, including agricultural, chemical, and pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords

Agriculture Enzymozymes Extremophiles Fungi Industrial applications 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge Gogate Jogalekar College, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra; Arts, Commerce and Science College, Lanja, Maharashtra; and Krishna University, Machilipatnam, AP, India.

Conflict of Interest

We declare that we do not have any conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chanda Parulekar Berde
    • 1
  • Vikrant Balkrishna Berde
    • 2
  • G. Mohana Sheela
    • 3
  • Pallaval Veerabramhachari
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyGogate Jogalekar CollegeRatnagiriIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyArts, Commerce and Science CollegeLanjaIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyVignan UniversityGunturIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiotechnologyKrishna UniversityMachilipatnamIndia

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