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Fungal Xylanases: Sources, Types, and Biotechnological Applications

  • Simranjeet Singh
  • Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu
  • Vijay Kumar
  • Daljeet Singh Dhanjal
  • Shivika Datta
  • Joginder SinghEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

Xylanase is a class of hydrolytic enzymes which cleaves the linear polysaccharide, the major constituent of hemicellulose beta-1,4-xylan into xylose. The structure of xylanase is complex, repeated linear polymers of xylopyranosyl groups at numerous carbon positions with different acidic compounds or sugars. It plays a critical physiological role in plant tissue like seed germination, plant defense system, and softening of fruits. Among microbial sources, actinomycetes, fungi, bacteria, and yeast are the principal sources of xylanases. The chief xylanase producers from fungal genera include Aspergillus, Coriolus versicolor, Fusarium, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trichoderma, and Pichia. The commercialization of xylanase into the industry has increased significantly due to wide number of applications. They are used in paper industries, bio-bleaching of wood pulp, bioprocessing of textiles, food additives to poultry, improvement in the nutritional properties of grain feed and silage, extraction of plant oils, starch, and coffee, etc. Solid-state fermentation is an effective method for xylanase synthesis, predominantly by fungal culture due to the advantages like high productivity at low cost as it produces xylanase by consuming cheap substrate, which serve as the carbon source as a resultant total cost of the process decreases. Advancement in recombinant DNA technology led to the selection of xylanase-producing microorganisms which are more likely suitable for industrial applications. The advancement in the genetic engineering can help us to amend the fungal expression system for hyper-expression of the heterologous xylanase for production as well as industrial use. Using improved technical advancement systems, development of recombinant fungal expression systems by genetic approach will help in hyper-expression of xylanases and xylanase families for their production management at the industrial level.

Keywords

Biotechnological application Expression Fungal enzyme Gene cloning Xylanases 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are highly grateful to the Head of School, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, for providing necessary research facilities.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simranjeet Singh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu
    • 1
  • Vijay Kumar
    • 4
  • Daljeet Singh Dhanjal
    • 1
  • Shivika Datta
    • 5
  • Joginder Singh
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia
  2. 2.Punjab Biotechnology IncubatorsMohaliIndia
  3. 3.Regional Advanced Water Testing LaboratoryMohaliIndia
  4. 4.Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Drug DevelopmentGwaliorIndia
  5. 5.Department of ZoologyLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia
  6. 6.Department of MicrobiologyLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia

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