Outdoor Sports: Winter

  • R. Kyle Martin
  • Mitchell I. Kennedy
  • J. P. Begly
  • Rob LaPrade
  • Lars EngebretsenEmail author


Outdoor winter sports present unique challenges for the sports medicine physician. Not only are athletes pushed to their physical limits in sports that often involve high speeds, but the additional influence of environmental factors can increase their injury risk and impede prompt medical care. Weather can change quickly, impacting visibility, the frictional properties of snow and ice, and jumping trajectory. Athletes that travel great distances from start to finish may experience delays in receiving on-scene medical attention in the event of an injury midway through their event. Events that take place in remote locations pose a further challenge of achieving timely evacuation to hospital in emergency situations, especially in poor weather conditions. Medical staff and event organizers must be aware of all these factors ahead of time in order to optimize athlete safety.


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Kyle Martin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mitchell I. Kennedy
    • 4
    • 5
  • J. P. Begly
    • 5
  • Rob LaPrade
    • 4
    • 5
  • Lars Engebretsen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.OSTRC, The Norwegian School of Sports SciencesOsloNorway
  4. 4.Steadman Philippon Research InstituteVailUSA
  5. 5.The Steadman ClinicVailUSA

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