• Natalie Sherry
  • Michael W. CollinsEmail author


An estimated 1.6–3.8 million sport-related concussions (SRCs) occur annually in the United States [1], and there has been a rise in the number of athletes seeking treatment for this injury in recent years [2]. A concussion is defined as a transient neurometabolic crisis in the brain that is induced by a traumatic biomechanical force to the head or body. The mechanical trauma to the brain results in a distortion and stretching of neuronal structures allowing for unregulated ionic fluctuations that initiate a series of complex neurometabolic events disruptive to brain function [3, 4]. These pathophysiological changes are not detectable with conventional neuroimaging techniques (e.g., computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) [5] but can result in a myriad of neurological signs (e.g., loss of consciousness [LOC], posttraumatic amnesia [PTA]), symptoms (e.g., headache, blurred vision), and impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, oculomotor abnormalities).


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sports Medicine Concussion Program, Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

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