Rainwater Harvesting and Current Advancements

  • Neha Dhingra
  • Ngangbam Sarat Singh
  • Ranju Sharma
  • Talat Parween


Our natural resources such as water, soil, forests, etc. are limited. As the cities are burdened with new residential areas, industries, food supplies with increasing population, the demand for these resources have been elevated as per they are already being exploited beyond their limits. Water is the basis of our life as crucially involved in simple chores of drinking, cooking to high scale industrial set ups. But with increasing urbanization and industrialization the water bodies have been exhausted to their utmost limit. Which is why there is a need to develop the alternate water sources. For this, the concept of rainwater harvesting comes up as a robust approach for sustaining the human needs. Rainwater harvesting is not a new policy; only it has been revitalized with the modern scientific approaches since there is numerous evidence of ancient civilizations of conserving and harvesting rainwater. The common method involves rainwater harvesting is a collection of rainwater in different structures and then making use of it in daily life, conserving it for future applications or it recharges the groundwater bodies. The implementation of varying rainwater harvesting techniques and methods varies from place to place depending upon their specific climatic conditions, land topography, hydrogeological conditions, etc. Also, it strengthens the relationship between the humans and the environment, making them aware of the need for conserving nature and natural resources along with sustainable development.


Rain water Water harvesting Runoff coefficient Rain water harvesting system IRCSA 


  1. American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association. Accessed 20 Dec 2017
  2. Center for Science and Environment. Accessed 12 Dec 2017
  3. Dreiblatt D (1982) United Nations, ground water in the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. Nat Res Forum 6:369–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elhag M, Bahrawi J (2014) Potential rainwater harvesting improvement using advanced remote sensing applications. Sci World J 2014:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Farreny R, Morales-Pinzón T, Guisasola A, Tayà C, Rieradevall J, Gabarrell X (2011) Roof selection for rainwater harvesting: quantity and quality assessments in Spain. Water Res 45:3245–3254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guangfei Lo A (2015) Rainwater harvesting: global overview. Rainwater Harvesting Agric Water Supply:213–233.
  7. International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association. Accessed 10 Dec 2017
  8. Jatiya V, Hosokawa T (2004) Significance of rainwater harvesting in mega-diversity water resource country: India. J Rainwater Catchment Syst 10:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jones M, Hunt W (2010) Performance of rainwater harvesting systems in the southeastern United States. Resour Conserv Recycl 54:623–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kahinda J, Rockström J, Taigbenu A, Dimes J (2007) Rainwater harvesting to enhance water productivity of rainfed agriculture in the semi-arid Zimbabwe. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 32:1068–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kawachi T, Aoyama S, Yangyuoru M, Unami K, Matoh T, Acquah D, Quarshie S (2005) An irrigation tank for harvesting rainwater in semi-arid Savannah areas: design and construction practices in Ghana/West Africa. J Rainwater Catchment Syst 11:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mays L, Antoniou G, Angelakis A (2013) History of water cisterns: legacies and lessons. Water 5:1916–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mbilinyi B, Tumbo S, Mahoo H, Senkondo E, Hatibu N (2005) Indigenous knowledge as decision support tool in rainwater harvesting. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 30:792–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meter K, Basu N, Tate E, Wyckoff J (2014) Monsoon harvests: the living legacies of rainwater harvesting systems in South India. Environ Sci Technol 48:4217–4225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Minkley G (2012) Rainwater harvesting, homestead food farming, social change and communities of interests in the eastern cape. S Afr Irrig Drain 61:106–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Qureshi A, McCornick P, Sarwar A, Sharma B (2009) Challenges and prospects of sustainable groundwater Management in the Indus Basin. Pak Water Resour Manag 24:1551–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rahman A (2017) Recent advances in modelling and implementation of rainwater harvesting systems towards sustainable development. Water 9:959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rainwater Harvesting and Utilisation.. An environmentally sound approach for sustainable urban water management: an introductory guide for decision-makers. Accessed 2 Jan 2018
  19. Rani D (2012) Rainwater harvesting practices: a key concept of energy-water linkage for sustainable development. Scientific Research and Essays 7:538–543Google Scholar
  20. Ray K, Dzikus A, Singh K, Mathur PS, Prasad D, Sharma DK., Un Habitat, Rainwater harvesting and utilization: - Blue drop series, Book 2Google Scholar
  21. Roman D, Braga A, Shetty N, Culligan P (2017) Design and modeling of an adaptively controlled rainwater harvesting system. Water 9:974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sharda V, Kurothe R, Sena D, Pande V, Tiwari S (2006) Estimation of groundwater recharge from water storage structures in a semi-arid climate of India. J Hydrol 329:224–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Singh S, Samaddar A, Srivastava R, Pandey H (2014) Ground water recharge in urban areas – experience of rain water harvesting. J Geol Soc India 83:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stephens D (1994) A perspective on diffuse natural recharge mechanisms in areas of low precipitation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tamaddun K, Kalra A, Ahmad S (2018) Potential of rooftop rainwater harvesting to meet outdoor water demand in arid regions. J Arid Land 10:68–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Texas Water Development Board. Accessed 15 Dec 2017
  27. The Renewable Energy Hub. Accessed on 7 Dec 2017
  28. Traboulsi H, Traboulsi M (2015) Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system. Appl Water Sci 7:769–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. United Nation Environment Program. Accessed 7 Dec 2017
  30. Van Hattum T, worm J (2006) Rainwater harvesting for domestic use. Agromisa Foundation/Digigrafi, Wageningen, Netherlands Google Scholar
  31. Vieira A, Beal C, Ghisi E, Stewart R (2014) Energy intensity of rainwater harvesting systems: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 34:225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ward S, Memon F, Butler D (2012) Performance of a large building rainwater harvesting system. Water Res 46:5127–5134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yannopoulos S, Antoniou G, Kaiafa-Saropoulou M, Angelakis A (2016) Historical development of rainwater harvesting and use in Hellas: a preliminary review. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 17:1022–1034Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neha Dhingra
    • 1
  • Ngangbam Sarat Singh
    • 2
  • Ranju Sharma
    • 3
  • Talat Parween
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.University of Delhi to Department of Zoology, Dr. SRK Government Arts CollegeYanamIndia
  3. 3.Indian Institute of TechnologyNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of BioscienceJamia Millia IslamiaNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations