Subsidiary Means for the Determination of Rules of International Law (Selected Provisions)

  • Paul Arthur Berkman
  • Alexander N. Vylegzhanin
  • Oran R. Young
Part of the Springer Polar Sciences book series (SPPS)


The overwhelming volume of discoveries and geographical investigations in polar areas located to the north of the Asiatic coast of the Russian Empire, carried out over centuries by Russian seamen and merchants, has just been supplemented by recent successes: the accomplishment of activities by Captain Vilkitsky, aide-de-camp to His Imperial Majesty, head of the hydrographic expedition, who, from 1913 to 1914, was entrusted to explore the Arctic Ocean.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Arthur Berkman
    • 1
  • Alexander N. Vylegzhanin
    • 2
  • Oran R. Young
    • 3
  1. 1.Science Diplomacy Center, Fletcher School of Law and DiplomacyTufts UniversityMedfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of International LawMGIMO UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Bren School of Environmental Science & ManagementUniversity of California Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

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