The Shoulder pp 147-166 | Cite as

Imaging Diagnosis of Glenohumeral Instability with Clinical Implications

  • Luis S. BeltranEmail author
  • Monica Tafur
  • Jenny T. Bencardino


The glenohumeral joint has a wide range of motion which can be advantageous in activities such as overhead throwing sports or occupational activities that require a wide variety of movements in the shoulder. However, this wide range of motion makes it an unstable joint and this is the major reason why shoulder instability and shoulder dislocation are very frequent in traumatic injuries such as falls and sports-related injuries. It is important to be familiar with the normal anatomical and pathologic imaging appearances of the structures in the shoulder to effectively diagnose and treat glenohumeral instability injuries. This chapter provides an up-to-date review of the normal shoulder anatomy and the various clinical and imaging features involved in glenohumeral instability with an emphasis on the MRI manifestations.


Glenohumeral instability Shoulder Radiologic imaging MRI CT 


  1. 1.
    Kroner K, Lind T, Jensen J. The epidemiology of shoulder dislocations. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1989;108(5):288–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nordqvist A, Petersson CJ. Incidence and causes of shoulder girdle injuries in an urban population. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1995;4(2):107–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Simonet WT, Melton LJ III, Cofield RH, Ilstrup DM. Incidence of anterior shoulder dislocation in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984;186:186–91.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hovelius L. Shoulder dislocation in Swedish ice hockey players. Am J Sports Med. 1978;6(6):373–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hovelius L. Incidence of shoulder dislocation in Sweden. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982;166:127–31.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arciero RA, Wheeler JH, Ryan JB, McBride JT. Arthroscopic Bankart repair versus nonoperative treatment for acute, initial anterior shoulder dislocations. Am J Sports Med. 1994;22(5):589–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wheeler JH, Ryan JB, Arciero RA, Molinari RN. Arthroscopic versus nonoperative treatment of acute shoulder dislocations in young athletes. Arthroscopy. 1989;5(3):213–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gyftopoulos S, Bencardino J, Palmer WE. MR imaging of the shoulder: first dislocation versus chronic instability. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2012;16(4):286–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hovelius L, Lind B, Thorling J. Primary dislocation of the shoulder. Factors affecting the two-year prognosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983;176:181–5.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Simonet WT, Cofield RH. Prognosis in anterior shoulder dislocation. Am J Sports Med. 1984;12(1):19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hovelius L. Anterior dislocation of the shoulder in teen-agers and young adults. Five-year prognosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1987;69(3):393–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vermeiren J, Handelberg F, Casteleyn PP, Opdecam P. The rate of recurrence of traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. A study of 154 cases and a review of the literature. Int Orthop. 1993;17(6):337–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hovelius L, Augustini BG, Fredin H, Johansson O, Norlin R, Thorling J. Primary anterior dislocation of the shoulder in young patients. A ten-year prospective study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996;78(11):1677–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roberts SN, Taylor DE, Brown JN, Hayes MG, Saies A. Open and arthroscopic techniques for the treatment of traumatic anterior shoulder instability in Australian rules football players. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1999;8(5):403–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kralinger FS, Golser K, Wischatta R, Wambacher M, Sperner G. Predicting recurrence after primary anterior shoulder dislocation. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(1):116–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    te Slaa RL, Brand R, Marti RK. A prospective arthroscopic study of acute first-time anterior shoulder dislocation in the young: a five-year follow-up study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2003;12(6):529–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rowe CR. Prognosis in dislocations of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1956;38-A(5):957–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Milgrom C, Mann G, Finestone A. A prevalence study of recurrent shoulder dislocations in young adults. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1998;7(6):621–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Owens BD, Dawson L, Burks R, Cameron KL. Incidence of shoulder dislocation in the United States military: demographic considerations from a high-risk population. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91(4):791–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beltran LS, Adler R, Stone T, Surace J, Beltran J, Bencardino JT. MRI and Ultrasound Imaging of the Shoulder Using Positional Maneuvers. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015;205(3):W244–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cvitanic O, Tirman PF, Feller JF, Bost FW, Minter J, Carroll KW. Using abduction and external rotation of the shoulder to increase the sensitivity of MR arthrography in revealing tears of the anterior glenoid labrum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(3):837–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chiavaras MM, Harish S, Burr J. MR arthrographic assessment of suspected posteroinferior labral lesions using flexion, adduction, and internal rotation positioning of the arm: preliminary experience. Skeletal Radiol. 2010;39(5):481–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Quillen DM, Wuchner M, Hatch RL. Acute shoulder injuries. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70(10):1947–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Di Giacomo G, Itoi E, Burkhart SS. Evolving concept of bipolar bone loss and the Hill-Sachs lesion: from "engaging/non-engaging" lesion to "on-track/off-track" lesion. Arthroscopy. 2014;30(1):90–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arai R, Kobayashi M, Toda Y, Nakamura S, Miura T, Nakamura T. Fiber components of the shoulder superior labrum. Surgical and radiologic anatomy: SRA. 2012;34(1):49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gustas CN, Tuite MJ. Imaging update on the glenoid labrum: variants versus tears. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014;18(4):365–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Llopis E, Montesinos P, Guedez MT, Aguilella L, Cerezal L. Normal Shoulder MRI and MR Arthrography: Anatomy and Technique. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015;19(3):212–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Major NM, Browne J, Domzalski T, Cothran RL, Helms CA. Evaluation of the glenoid labrum with 3-T MRI: is intra-articular contrast necessary? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;196(5):1139–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kwak SM, Brown RR, Resnick D, Trudell D, Applegate GR, Haghighi P. Anatomy, anatomic variations, and pathology of the 11- to 3-o'clock position of the glenoid labrum: findings on MR arthrography and anatomic sections. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;171(1):235–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rudez J, Zanetti M. Normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls on shoulder MRI. Eur J Radiol. 2008;68(1):25–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stoller DW. MR arthrography of the glenohumeral joint. Radiol Clin North Am. 1997;35(1):97–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williams MM, Snyder SJ, Buford D Jr. The Buford complex--the "cord-like" middle glenohumeral ligament and absent anterosuperior labrum complex: a normal anatomic capsulolabral variant. Arthroscopy. 1994;10(3):241–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Boon JM, de Beer MA, Botha D, Maritz NG, Fouche AA. The anatomy of the subscapularis tendon insertion as applied to rotator cuff repair. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2004;13(2):165–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Opsha O, Malik A, Baltazar R, Primakov D, Beltran S, Miller TT, et al. MRI of the rotator cuff and internal derangement. Eur J Radiol. 2008;68(1):36–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Parsons IM, Apreleva M, Fu FH, Woo SL. The effect of rotator cuff tears on reaction forces at the glenohumeral joint. Journal of orthopaedic research: official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society. 2002;20(3):439–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Demehri S, Hafezi-Nejad N, Fishman EK. Advanced imaging of glenohumeral instability: the role of MRI and MDCT in providing what clinicians need to know. Emerg Radiol. 2016;24(1):95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Murray IR, Goudie EB, Petrigliano FA, Robinson CM. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of shoulder stability in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 2013;32(4):607–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shah AS, Karadsheh MS, Sekiya JK. Failure of operative treatment for glenohumeral instability: etiology and management. Arthroscopy. 2011;27(5):681–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Acid S, Le Corroller T, Aswad R, Pauly V, Champsaur P. Preoperative imaging of anterior shoulder instability: diagnostic effectiveness of MDCT arthrography and comparison with MR arthrography and arthroscopy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(3):661–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fritz J, Fishman EK, Fayad LM. MDCT Arthrography of the Shoulder. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014;18(4):343–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fritz J, Fishman EK, Small KM, Winalski CS, Horger MS, Corl F, et al. MDCT arthrography of the shoulder with datasets of isotropic resolution: indications, technique, and applications. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(3):635–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Magee T. 3-T MRI of the shoulder: is MR arthrography necessary? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192(1):86–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Huijsmans PE, Haen PS, Kidd M, Dhert WJ, van der Hulst VP, Willems WJ. Quantification of a glenoid defect with three-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a cadaveric study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007;16(6):803–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Skendzel JG, Sekiya JK. Diagnosis and management of humeral head bone loss in shoulder instability. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(11):2633–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gyftopoulos S, Hasan S, Bencardino J, Mayo J, Nayyar S, Babb J, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in the measurement of glenoid bone loss. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199(4):873–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Perthes G. Zur therapie der habituellen schulter-luxation. Med Zs. 1905;237:481.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Perthes G. Ueber operationen bei habitueller schulterluxation. Dtsch Z Chir. 1906;85:199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wischer TK, Bredella MA, Genant HK, Stoller DW, Bost FW, Tirman PF. Perthes lesion (a variant of the Bankart lesion): MR imaging and MR arthrographic findings with surgical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;178(1):233–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Neviaser TJ. The anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion: a cause of anterior instability of the shoulder. Arthroscopy. 1993;9(1):17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chung CB, Corrente L, Resnick D. MR arthrography of the shoulder. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2004;12(1):25–38.. v-viPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Neviaser TJ. The GLAD lesion: another cause of anterior shoulder pain. Arthroscopy. 1993;9(1):22–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wolf EM, Cheng JC, Dickson K. Humeral avulsion of glenohumeral ligaments as a cause of anterior shoulder instability. Arthroscopy. 1995;11(5):600–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Richards DP, Burkhart SS. Arthroscopic humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments (HAGL) repair. Arthroscopy. 2004;20(Suppl 2):134–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Melvin JS, Mackenzie JD, Nacke E, Sennett BJ, Wells L. MRI of HAGL lesions: four arthroscopically confirmed cases of false-positive diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;191(3):730–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Burkhart SS, De Beer JF. Traumatic glenohumeral bone defects and their relationship to failure of arthroscopic Bankart repairs: significance of the inverted-pear glenoid and the humeral engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. Arthroscopy. 2000;16(7):677–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mascarenhas R, Rusen J, Saltzman BM, Leiter J, Chahal J, Romeo AA, et al. Management of humeral and glenoid bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability. Advances in orthopedics. 2014;2014:640952.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ozaki R, Nakagawa S, Mizuno N, Mae T, Yoneda M. Hill-Sachs lesions in shoulders with traumatic anterior instability: evaluation using computed tomography with 3-dimensional reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(11):2597–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Provencher MT, Bhatia S, Ghodadra NS, Grumet RC, Bach BR Jr, Dewing CB, et al. Recurrent shoulder instability: current concepts for evaluation and management of glenoid bone loss. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92(Suppl 2):133–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Piasecki DP, Verma NN, Romeo AA, Levine WN, Bach BR Jr, Provencher MT. Glenoid bone deficiency in recurrent anterior shoulder instability: diagnosis and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009;17(8):482–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Warner JJ, Gill TJ, O'Hollerhan JD, Pathare N, Millett PJ. Anatomical glenoid reconstruction for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability with glenoid deficiency using an autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(2):205–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Provencher MT, Ghodadra N, LeClere L, Solomon DJ, Romeo AA. Anatomic osteochondral glenoid reconstruction for recurrent glenohumeral instability with glenoid deficiency using a distal tibia allograft. Arthroscopy. 2009;25(4):446–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Owens BD, DeBerardino TM, Nelson BJ, Thurman J, Cameron KL, Taylor DC, et al. Long-term follow-up of acute arthroscopic Bankart repair for initial anterior shoulder dislocations in young athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(4):669–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Crall TS, Bishop JA, Guttman D, Kocher M, Bozic K, Lubowitz JH. Cost-effectiveness analysis of primary arthroscopic stabilization versus nonoperative treatment for first-time anterior glenohumeral dislocations. Arthroscopy. 2012;28(12):1755–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Provencher MT, Frank RM, Leclere LE, Metzger PD, Ryu JJ, Bernhardson A, et al. The Hill-Sachs lesion: diagnosis, classification, and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012;20(4):242–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cho SH, Cho NS, Rhee YG. Preoperative analysis of the Hill-Sachs lesion in anterior shoulder instability: how to predict engagement of the lesion. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(11):2389–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stillwater L, Koenig J, Maycher B, Davidson M. 3D-MR vs. 3D-CT of the shoulder in patients with glenohumeral instability. Skeletal Radiol. 2016;46(3):325–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gyftopoulos S, Beltran LS, Bookman J, Rokito A. MRI Evaluation of Bipolar Bone Loss Using the On-Track Off-Track Method: A Feasibility Study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015;205(4):848–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gyftopoulos S, Beltran LS, Yemin A, Strauss E, Meislin R, Jazrawi L, et al. Use of 3D MR reconstructions in the evaluation of glenoid bone loss: a clinical study. Skeletal Radiol. 2014;43(2):213–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gyftopoulos S, Yemin A, Beltran L, Babb J, Bencardino J. Engaging Hill-Sachs lesion: is there an association between this lesion and findings on MRI? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;201(4):W633–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McLaughlin HL, MacLellan DI. Recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. II. A comparative study. J Trauma. 1967;7(2):191–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goss TP. Fractures of the coracoid process. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997;79(4):694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    McGinnis M, Denton JR. Fractures of the scapula: a retrospective study of 40 fractured scapulae. J Trauma. 1989;29(11):1488–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cottalorda J, Allard D, Dutour N, Chavrier Y. Fracture of the coracoid process in an adolescent. Injury. 1996;27(6):436–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ogawa K, Yoshida A, Takahashi M, Ui M. Fractures of the coracoid process. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997;79(1):17–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Symeonides PP. The significance of the subscapularis muscle in the pathogenesis of recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1972;54(3):476–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hawkins RJ, Bell RH, Hawkins RH, Koppert GJ. Anterior dislocation of the shoulder in the older patient. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;206:192–5.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Itoi E, Tabata S. Rotator cuff tears in anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Int Orthop. 1992;16(3):240–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    DePalma AF, Cooke AJ, Prabhakar M. The role of the subscapularis in recurrent anterior dislocations of the shoulder. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1967;54:35–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Neviaser RJ, Neviaser TJ, Neviaser JS. Concurrent rupture of the rotator cuff and anterior dislocation of the shoulder in the older patient. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988;70(9):1308–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Neviaser RJ, Neviaser TJ, Neviaser JS. Anterior dislocation of the shoulder and rotator cuff rupture. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993;291:103–6.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Berbig R, Weishaupt D, Prim J, Shahin O. Primary anterior shoulder dislocation and rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1999;8(3):220–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Edouard P, Degache F, Beguin L, Samozino P, Gresta G, Fayolle-Minon I, et al. Rotator cuff strength in recurrent anterior shoulder instability. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(8):759–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gyftopoulos S, Carpenter E, Kazam J, Babb J, Bencardino J. MR imaging of subscapularis tendon injury in the setting of anterior shoulder dislocation. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41(11):1445–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Perlmutter GS. Axillary nerve injury. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999;368:28–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Robinson CM, Shur N, Sharpe T, Ray A, Murray IR. Injuries associated with traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocations. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(1):18–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    May DA, Disler DG, Jones EA, Balkissoon AA, Manaster BJ. Abnormal signal intensity in skeletal muscle at MR imaging: patterns, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics. 2000;20:S295–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Linda DD, Harish S, Stewart BG, Finlay K, Parasu N, Rebello RP. Multimodality imaging of peripheral neuropathies of the upper limb and brachial plexus. Radiographics. 2010;30(5):1373–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hintermann B, Gachter A. Arthroscopic findings after shoulder dislocation. Am J Sports Med. 1995;23(5):545–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kim DS, Yoon YS, Yi CH. Prevalence comparison of accompanying lesions between primary and recurrent anterior dislocation in the shoulder. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(10):2071–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yiannakopoulos CK, Mataragas E, Antonogiannakis E. A comparison of the spectrum of intra-articular lesions in acute and chronic anterior shoulder instability. Arthroscopy. 2007;23(9):985–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lo IK, Parten PM, Burkhart SS. The inverted pear glenoid: an indicator of significant glenoid bone loss. Arthroscopy. 2004;20(2):169–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shah N, Tung GA. Imaging signs of posterior glenohumeral instability. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192(3):730–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Palmer WE, Caslowitz PL. Anterior shoulder instability: diagnostic criteria determined from prospective analysis of 121 MR arthrograms. Radiology. 1995;197(3):819–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chandnani VP, Yeager TD, DeBerardino T, Christensen K, Gagliardi JA, Heitz DR, et al. Glenoid labral tears: prospective evaluation with MRI imaging, MR arthrography, and CT arthrography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;161(6):1229–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sugimoto H, Suzuki K, Mihara K, Kubota H, Tsutsui H. MR arthrography of shoulders after suture-anchor Bankart repair. Radiology. 2002;224(1):105–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jana M, Srivastava DN, Sharma R, Gamanagatti S, Nag HL, Mittal R, et al. Magnetic resonance arthrography for assessing severity of glenohumeral labroligamentous lesions. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2012;20(2):230–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mutlu S, Mahirogullari M, Guler O, Ucar BY, Mutlu H, Sonmez G, et al. Anterior Glenohumeral Instability: Classification of Pathologies of Anteroinferior Labroligamentous Structures Using MR Arthrography. Advances in orthopedics. 2013;2013:473194.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Woertler K. Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder. Eur Radiol. 2007;17(12):3038–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Beltran LS, Duarte A, Bencardino JT. Postoperative Imaging in Anterior Glenohumeral Instability. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2018;211(3):528–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis S. Beltran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Monica Tafur
    • 2
  • Jenny T. Bencardino
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of RadiologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyMichael’s Hospital, University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyNew York University Langone HealthNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Penn Medicine, Department of RadiologyPerelman School of Medicine at the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations