Advertisement

The Shoulder pp 321-340 | Cite as

Imaging Diagnosis of Nerve Entrapments in the Shoulder

  • Alireza Eajazi
  • Miriam A. Bredella
  • Martin TorrianiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Neuropathies are a potential source of shoulder pain and may result from trauma, neoplasia, infection, neuropathy, autoimmune disease, and iatrogenic conditions. Entrapment neuropathies of the shoulder are also an important potential cause of pain; however they are likely underestimated. Commonly affected nerves in the shoulder include the suprascapular, axillary, long thoracic, cervical accessory, and dorsal scapular nerves. This chapter provides a review of anatomic structures and landmarks of relevant nerves around the shoulder and will outline pathologic conditions causing entrapment neuropathies such as compression, stretching, or iatrogenic lesions. Further, the role of several diagnostic imaging modalities is discussed. Familiarity with nerve abnormalities about the shoulder and their imaging findings should allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of painful syndromes and appropriate clinical or surgical management.

Keywords

Shoulder Neuropathies Nerves Entrapment Suprascapular Quadrilateral Axillary nerve 

References

  1. 1.
    Kamath S, Venkatanarasimha N, Walsh M, Hughes P. MRI appearance of muscle denervation. Skelet Radiol. 2008;37:397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blum A, Lecocq S, Louis M, Wassel J, Moisei A, Teixeira P. The nerves around the shoulder. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:2–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boykin RE, Friedman DJ, Higgins LD, Warner JJ. Suprascapular neuropathy. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;92:2348–64.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lorei MP, Hershman EB. Peripheral nerve injuries in athletes. Sports Med. 1993;16:130–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ludig T, Walter F, Chapuis D, Molé D, Roland J, Blum A. MR imaging evaluation of suprascapular nerve entrapment. Eur Radiol. 2001;11:2161–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bencardino JT, Rosenberg ZS. Entrapment neuropathies of the shoulder and elbow in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 2006;25:465–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aiello I, Serra G, Traina G, Tugnoli V. Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve at the spinoglenoid notch. Ann Neurol. 1982;12:314–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bigliani LU, Dalsey RM, McCann PD, April EW. An anatomical study of the suprascapular nerve. Arthroscopy. 1990;6:301–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Warner J, Krushell R, Masquelet A, Gerber C. Anatomy and relationships of the suprascapular nerve. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992;74:36–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown D, James D, Roy S. Pain relief by suprascapular nerve block in gleno-humeral arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol. 1988;17:411–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsumoto D, Suenaga N, Oizumi N, Hisada Y, Minami A. A new nerve block procedure for the suprascapular nerve based on a cadaveric study. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18:607–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ritchie ED, Tong D, Chung F, Norris AM, Miniaci A, Vairavanathan SD. Suprascapular nerve block for postoperative pain relief in arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a new modality? Anesth Analg. 1997;84:1306–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tubbs RS, Tyler-Kabara EC, Aikens AC, et al. Surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve within the quadrangular space. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:912–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Apaydin N, Tubbs RS, Loukas M, Duparc F. Review of the surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve and the anatomic basis of its iatrogenic and traumatic injury. Surg Radiol Anat. 2010;32:193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McClelland D, Paxinos A. The anatomy of the quadrilateral space with reference to quadrilateral space syndrome. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2008;17:162–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Safran MR. Nerve injury about the shoulder in athletes, part 2: long thoracic nerve, spinal accessory nerve, burners/stingers, thoracic outlet syndrome. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1063–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wiater JM, Bigliani LU. Spinal accessory nerve injury. Clin Orthop. 1999;368:5–16.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pecina M, Krmpotic-Nemanic J, Markiewitz A. Tunnel syndromes in the upper extremities; 1991. p. 11–84.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ho E, Cofield RH, Balm MR, Hattrup SJ, Rowland CM. Neurologic complications of surgery for anterior shoulder instability. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1999;8:266–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lynch NM, Cofield RH, Silbert PL, Hermann RC. Neurologic complications after total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1996;5:53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Small NC. Complications in arthroscopic surgery performed by experienced arthroscopists. Arthroscopy. 1988;4:215–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rodeo SA, Forster RA, Weiland AJ. Neurological complications due to arthroscopy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1993;75:917–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Segmüller HE, Alfred SP, Zilio G, Saies AD, Hayes MG. Cutaneous nerve lesions of the shoulder and arm after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1995;4:254–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boardman ND, Cofield RH. Neurologic complications of shoulder surgery. Clin Orthop. 1999;368:44–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marecek GS, Saltzman MD. Complications in shoulder arthroscopy. Orthopedics. 2010;33:492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Piasecki DP, Romeo AA, Bach BR Jr, Nicholson GP. Suprascapular neuropathy. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009;17:665–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Budzik J, Wavreille G, Pansini V, Moraux A, Demondion X, Cotten A. Entrapment neuropathies of the shoulder. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2012;20:373–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bianchi S, Martinoli C. Shoulder. In: Anonymous ultrasound of the musculoskeletal system. Berlin: Springer; 2007. p. 189–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Canella C, Demondion X, Abreu E, Marchiori E, Cotten H, Cotten A. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:56–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim S, Hong SH, Jun WS, et al. MR imaging mapping of skeletal muscle denervation in entrapment and compressive neuropathies. Radiographics. 2011;31:319–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Beltran J, Rosenberg ZS. Diagnosis of compressive and entrapment neuropathies of the upper extremity: value of MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;163:525–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Petchprapa CN, Rosenberg ZS, Sconfienza LM, Cavalcanti CFA, La Rocca Vieira R, Zember JS. MR imaging of entrapment neuropathies of the lower extremity: part 1. The pelvis and hip 1. Radiographics. 2010;30:983–1000.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yamabe E, Nakamura T, Oshio K, Kikuchi Y, Ikegami H, Toyama Y. Peripheral nerve injury: diagnosis with MR imaging of denervated skeletal muscle—experimental study in rats 1. Radiology. 2008;247:409–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goutallier D, Postel JM, Bernageau J, Lavau L, Voisin MC. Fatty infiltration of disrupted rotator cuff muscles. Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1995;62:415–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ferretti A, Cerullo G, RUsso G. Suprascapular neuropathy in volleyball players. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1987;69:260–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Holzgraefe M, Kukowski B, Eggert S. Prevalence of latent and manifest suprascapular neuropathy in high-performance volleyball players. Br J Sports Med. 1994;28:177–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ringel SP, Treihaft M, Carry M, Fisher R, Jacobs P. Suprascapular neuropathy in pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 1990;18:80–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Witvrouw E, Cools A, Lysens R, et al. Suprascapular neuropathy in volleyball players. Br J Sports Med. 2000;34:174–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lee BC, Yegappan M, Thiagarajan P. Suprascapular nerve neuropathy secondary to spinoglenoid notch ganglion cyst: case reports and review of literature. Ann Acad Med Singap. 2007;36:1032.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Semmler A, von Falkenhausen M, Schroder R. Suprascapular nerve entrapment by a spinoglenoid cyst. Neurology. 2008;70:890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yi JW, Cho NS, Rhee YG. Intraosseous ganglion of the glenoid causing suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome: a case report. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18:e25–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Solheim LF, Roaas A. Compression of the suprascapular nerve after fracture of the scapular notch. Acta Orthop Scand. 1978;49:338–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Travlos J, Goldberg I, Boome RS. Brachial plexus lesions associated with dislocated shoulders. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990;72:68–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Visser C, Coene L, Brand R, Tavy D. The incidence of nerve injury in anterior dislocation of the shoulder and its influence on functional recovery a prospective clinical and EMG study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1999;81:679–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yoon TN, Grabois M, Guillen M. Suprascapular nerve injury following trauma to the shoulder. J Trauma. 1981;21:652–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mallon WJ, Wilson RJ, Basamania CJ. The association of suprascapular neuropathy with massive rotator cuff tears: a preliminary report. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2006;15:395–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lajtai G, Pfirrmann CW, Aitzetmuller G, Pirkl C, Gerber C, Jost B. The shoulders of professional beach volleyball players: high prevalence of infraspinatus muscle atrophy. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:1375–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cummins CA, Anderson K, Bowen M, Nuber G, Roth SI. Anatomy and histological characteristics of the spinoglenoid ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998;80:1622–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Plancher KD, Luke TA, Peterson RK, Yacoubian SV. Posterior shoulder pain: a dynamic study of the spinoglenoid ligament and treatment with arthroscopic release of the scapular tunnel. Arthroscopy. 2007;23:991–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Demirhan M, Imhoff AB, Debski RE, Patel PR, Fu FH, Woo SL. The spinoglenoid ligament and its relationship to the suprascapular nerve. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1998;7:238–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bayramoğlu A, Demiryürek D, Tüccar E, et al. Variations in anatomy at the suprascapular notch possibly causing suprascapular nerve entrapment: an anatomical study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2003;11:393–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cummins CA, Messer TM, Nuber GW. Current concepts review-suprascapular nerve entrapment*. J Bone Joint Surg. 2000;82:415–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rengachary SS, Neff JP, Singer PA, Brackett CE. Suprascapular entrapment neuropathy: a clinical, anatomical, and comparative study: part 1: clinical study. Neurosurgery. 1979;5:441–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ticker JB, Djurasovic M, Strauch RJ, et al. The incidence of ganglion cysts and other variations in anatomy along the course of the suprascapular nerve. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1998;7:472–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Abboud JA, Silverberg D, Glaser DL, Ramsey ML, Williams GR. Arthroscopy effectively treats ganglion cysts of the shoulder. Clin Orthop. 2006;444:129–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fehrman DA, Orwin JF, Jennings RM. Suprascapular nerve entrapment by ganglion cysts: a report of six cases with arthroscopic findings and review of the literature. Arthroscopy. 1995;11:727–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Moore TP, Fritts HM, Quick DC, Buss DD. Suprascapular nerve entrapment caused by supraglenoid cyst compression. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1997;6:455–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tirman PF, Feller JF, Janzen DL, Peterfy CG, Bergman AG. Association of glenoid labral cysts with labral tears and glenohumeral instability: radiologic findings and clinical significance. Radiology. 1994;190:653–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Westerheide KJ, Dopirak RM, Karzel RP, Snyder SJ. Suprascapular nerve palsy secondary to spinoglenoid cysts: results of arthroscopic treatment. Arthroscopy. 2006;22:721–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tung GA, Entzian D, Stern JB, Green A. MR imaging and MR arthrography of paraglenoid labral cysts. Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174:1707–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    O'Connor EE, Dixon LB, Peabody T, Stacy GS. MRI of cystic and soft-tissue masses of the shoulder joint. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Van Es H. MRI of the brachial plexus. Eur Radiol. 2001;11:325–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Pugliese F, et al. Sonography of entrapment neuropathies in the upper limb (wrist excluded). J Clin Ultrasound. 2004;32:438–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Martinoli C, Gandolfo N, Perez MM, et al. Brachial plexus and nerves about the shoulder. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2010;14:523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Huang K, Tu Y, Huang T, Hsu RW. Suprascapular neuropathy complicating a Neer type I distal clavicular fracture: a case report. J Orthop Trauma. 2005;19:343–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Visser CP, Coene L, Brand R, Tavy DL. Nerve lesions in proximal humeral fractures. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2001;10:421–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wijdicks CA, Armitage BM, Anavian J, Schroder LK, Cole PA. Vulnerable neurovasculature with a posterior approach to the scapula. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467:2011–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fritz RC, Helms CA, Steinbach LS, Genant HK. Suprascapular nerve entrapment: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology. 1992;182:437–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bredella M, Tirman P, Fritz R, Wischer T, Stork A, Genant H. Denervation syndromes of the shoulder girdle: MR imaging with electrophysiologic correlation. Skelet Radiol. 1999;28:567–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cahill BR, Palmer RE. Quadrilateral space syndrome. J Hand Surg. 1983;8:65–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sanders TG, Tirman PF. Paralabral cyst: an unusual cause of quadrilateral space syndrome. Arthroscopy. 1999;15:632–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Redler MR, Ruland LJ 3rd, FC MC 3rd. Quadrilateral space syndrome in a throwing athlete. Am J Sports Med. 1986;14:511–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schulte KR, Warner JJ. Uncommon causes of shoulder pain in the athlete. Orthop Clin North Am. 1995;26:505–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Robinson P, White L, Lax M, Salonen D, Bell R. Quadrilateral space syndrome caused by glenoid labral cyst. Am J Roentgenol. 2000;175:1103–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tirman PF, Bost FW, Steinbach LS, et al. MR arthrographic depiction of tears of the rotator cuff: benefit of abduction and external rotation of the arm. Radiology. 1994;192:851–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sofka CM, Lin J, Feinberg J, Potter HG. Teres minor denervation on routine magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder. Skelet Radiol. 2004;33:514–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Perlmutter GS. Axillary nerve injury. Clin Orthop. 1999;368:28–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bryan WJ, Schauder K, Tullos HS. The axillary nerve and its relationship to common sports medicine shoulder procedures. Am J Sports Med. 1986;14:113–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wilson L, Sundaram M, Piraino DW, Ilaslan H, Recht MP. Isolated teres minor atrophy: manifestation of quadrilateral space syndrome or traction injury to the axillary nerve? Orthopedics. 2006;29:447–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yanny S, Toms AP. MR patterns of denervation around the shoulder. Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195:W157–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cothran RL Jr, Helms C. Quadrilateral space syndrome: incidence of imaging findings in a population referred for MRI of the shoulder. Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184:989–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tuckman GA, Devlin TC. Axillary nerve injury after anterior glenohumeral dislocation: MR findings in three patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:695–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Price MR, Tillett ED, Acland RD, Nettleton GS. Determining the relationship of the axillary nerve to the shoulder joint capsule from an arthroscopic perspective. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86:2135–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fleckenstein JL, Watumull D, Conner KE, et al. Denervated human skeletal muscle: MR imaging evaluation. Radiology. 1993;187:213–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bencardino J, Petchprapa C, Rybak L, Hassankhani A, Palmer W. Teres minor atrophy: a sign of axillary denervation injury following shoulder trauma. Radiology. 2002;225:371.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Omar N, Alvi F, Srinivasan M. An unusual presentation of whiplash injury: long thoracic and spinal accessory nerve injury. Eur Spine J. 2007;16:275–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    McFarland EG, Garzon-Muvdi J, Jia X, Desai P, Petersen SA. Clinical and diagnostic tests for shoulder disorders: a critical review. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:328–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wiater JM, Flatow EL. Long thoracic nerve injury. Clin Orthop. 1999;368:17–27.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sahin F, Yilmaz F, Esit N, Aysal F, Kuran B. Compressive neuropathy of long thoracic nerve and accessory nerve secondary to heavy load bearing. Eura Medicophys. 2007;47:71–4.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    O'Dell M, Stubblefield M, O'Dell M, Stubblefield M. Cancer rehabilitation: principles and practice. New York: Demos Medical Publishing; 2009.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Martin RM, Fish DE. Scapular winging: anatomical review, diagnosis, and treatments. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2008;1:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Toth C, McNeil S, Feasby T. Peripheral nervous system injuries in sport and recreation. Sports Med. 2005;35:717–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tubbs RS, Tyler-Kabara EC, Aikens AC, et al. Surgical anatomy of the dorsal scapular nerve. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:910–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chen D, Gu Y, Lao J, Chen L. Dorsal scapular nerve compression. Atypical thoracic outlet syndrome. Chin Med J. 1995;108:582–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Akgun K, Aktas I, Terzi Y. Winged scapula caused by a dorsal scapular nerve lesion: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89:2017–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kuhn JE, Plancher KD, Hawkins RJ. Scapular Winging. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1995;3:319–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Spillane J. Localised neuritis of the shoulder girdle: a report of 46 cases in the MEF. Lancet. 1943;242:532–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Parsonage M, Aldren Turner J. Neuralgic amyotrophy the shoulder-girdle syndrome. Lancet. 1948;251:973–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tsairis P, Dyck PJ, Mulder DW. Natural history of brachial plexus neuropathy: report on 99 patients. Arch Neurol. 1972;27:109–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Turner JA. Acute brachial radiculitis. Br Med J. 1944;2:592–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dixon GJ, Dick T. Acute brachial radiculitis course and prognosis. Lancet. 1945;246:707–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Magee KR, DeJong RN. Paralytic brachial neuritis: discussion of clinical features with review of 23 cases. JAMA. 1960;174:1258–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Weikers NJ, Mattson RH. Acute paralytic brachial neuritis. A clinical and electrodiagnostic study. Neurology. 1969;19:1153–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Scalf RE, Wenger DE, Frick MA, Mandrekar JN, Adkins MC. MRI findings of 26 patients with Parsonage-Turner syndrome. Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:W39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pellas F, Olivares J, Zandotti C, Delarque A. Neuralgic amyotrophy after parvovirus B19 infection. Lancet. 1993;342:503–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Suarez GA, Giannini C, Bosch EP, et al. Immune brachial plexus neuropathy: suggestive evidence for an inflammatory-immune pathogenesis. Neurology. 1996;46:559–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ryan M, Twair A, Nelson E, Brennan D, Eustace S. Whole body magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome. Acta Radiol. 2004;45:534–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Beghi E, Kurland LT, Mulder DW, Nicolosi A. Brachial plexus neuropathy in the population of Rochester, Minnesota, 1970–1981. Ann Neurol. 1985;18:320–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Helms CA, Martinez S, Speer KP. Acute brachial neuritis (Parsonage-Turner syndrome): MR imaging appearance--report of three cases. Radiology. 1998;207:255–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gaskin CM, Helms CA. Parsonage-Turner Syndrome: MR Imaging Findings and Clinical Information of 27 Patients 1. Radiology. 2006;240:501–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sallomi D, Janzen DL, Munk PL, Connell DG, Tirman PF. Muscle denervation patterns in upper limb nerve injuries: MR imaging findings and anatomic basis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;171:779–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Uetani M, Hayashi K, Matsunaga N, Imamura K, Ito N. Denervated skeletal muscle: MR imaging. Work in progress. Radiology. 1993;189:511–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    May DA, Disler DG, Jones EA, Balkissoon AA, Manaster B. Abnormal signal intensity in skeletal muscle at MR imaging: patterns, pearls, and pitfalls 1. Radiographics. 2000;20:S295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza Eajazi
    • 1
  • Miriam A. Bredella
    • 1
  • Martin Torriani
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations