Sub-rapid Solidification Study by Using Droplet Solidification Technique

  • Cheng Lu
  • Wanlin WangEmail author
  • Chenyang Zhu
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Droplet solidification technique is important with respect to the fundamental study of strip casting given the common conditions of direct contact between cooling mold and solidifying metal. In this study, an improved droplet solidification technique has been developed for the in situ observation of the sub-rapid solidification phenomena of metal droplets impinging onto the water-cooled copper substrate. The heat transfer rates were calculated by the inverse heat conduction program (IHCP), according to the responding temperatures’ gradient inside the cooling mold. Meanwhile a charge coupled device (CCD) camera was placed beside the bell jar aimed to record the whole melting and solidification process of the steel sample, which also allowed the determination of the final wetting angel, during the dipping tests. Moreover, it was found that the heat transfer rate increased with decreasing final contact angle, which means better wetting condition between the liquid sample and the copper substrate.


Droplet solidification technique Sub-rapid solidification In situ observation 


  1. 1.
    Netto PGQ, Tavares RP, Isac M, Guthrie RIL (2001) A technique for the evaluation of instantaneous heat fluxes for the horizontal strip casting of aluminum alloys. ISIJ Int 41(11):1340–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Luiten EEM, Blok K (2003) Stimulating R&D of industrial energy-efficient technology; the effect of government intervention on the development of strip casting technology. Energy Policy 31(13):1339–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Loulou T, Artyukhin EA, Bardon JP (1999) Estimation of thermal contact resistance during the first stages of metal solidification process: I—experiment principle and modelisation. Int J Heat Mass Tran 42(12):2129–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang W, Yu Y, Fang Y, Li J (2011) Determination of interfacial heat flux of stainless steel solidification on copper substrate during the first 0.2 s. J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ 16(1):65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nolli P (2007) Doctoral thesis. Carnegie Mellon UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Todoroki H, Lertarom R, Cramb AW, Jimbo I, Suzuki T (1996) Evaluation of the initiation of solidification of iron against a water cooled copper mold. Electr Furn Conf Proc, 1371–1379Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nolli P, Cramb AW (2008) Naturally deposited oxide films in near-net-shape casting: importance, mechanisms of formation, and prediction. Metall Mater Trans B 39(B):56–65Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nolli P, Cramb AW (2007) Interaction between iron droplets and H2S during solidification. ISIJ Int 47:1284–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yu Y, Cramb AW, Heard R, Fang Y, Cui J (2006) The effect of oxygen partial pressure on heat transfer and solidification. ISIJ Int 46(10):1427–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhu CY, Wang WL, Lu C (2019) Characterization of cermet coatings and its effect on the responding heat transfer performance in strip casting process. J Alloy Compd 770:631–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Strezov L, Herbertson J (1998) Experimental studies of interfacial heat transfer and initial solidification pertinent to strip casting. ISIJ Int 38:959–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Strezov L, Herbertson J, Belton GR (2000) Mechanisms of initial melt/substrate heat transfer pertinent to strip casting. Metall Mater Trans B 31(B):1023–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang WL, Zhu CY, Lu C, Yu J, Zhou LJ (2018) Study of the heat transfer behavior and naturally deposited films in strip casting by using droplet solidification technique. Metall Mater Trans AGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang H, Wang W, Zhou D, Ma F, Lu B, Zhou L (2014) A study for initial solidification of Sn–Pb alloy during continuous casting: Part I. The development of the technique. Metall Mater Trans B 45(B):1038–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhou D, Wang W, Zhang H, Ma F, Chen K, Zhou L (2014) A study for initial solidification of Sn–Pb alloy during continuous casting: Part II. Effects of casting parameters on initial solidification and shell surface. Metall Mater Trans B 45(B):1048–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang H, Wang W (2017) Mold simulator study of heat transfer phenomenon during the initial solidification in continuous casting mold. Metall Mater Trans B 48(B):779–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Luo X, Wang W, Ma F (2016) Degree of undercooling and wettability behavior of liquid steel on single-crystal Al2O3 and MgO substrate under controlled oxygen partial pressure. ISIJ Int 56(8):1333–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Metallurgy and EnvironmentCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.National Center for International Research of Clean Metallurgy, Central South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations