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Colour Removal from Sugar Syrups

  • Svatopluk Henke
  • Andrea HinkovaEmail author
  • Simona Gillarova
Chapter

Abstract

Colours of sugar and sugar syrups are the basic attributes which not only describe the quality of sugar, but also determine the efficiency of the sugar technology. Highly efficient, selective and inexpensive methods are essential to keep the production effective and the costs low. Ion-exchange technology is one of many techniques used in decolourisation of sugar syrups, but unlike other methods, it has a potential to improve the profitability of sugar processes. The introductory part of this chapter describes character and composition of colour substances, their origin and formation in the technological processes and basic methods used for their removal from both beet and cane sugar syrups. The following subchapters give details about types and properties of ion-exchange materials, mechanism of separation of colour substances by ion-exchangers, operation and regeneration of ion-exchangers as well as basic terminology used in ion-exchange chromatographic separation processes. The key section is dedicated to description of the design and set-up of industrial system used in colour removal and purification of sugar solutions and comparison of ion-exchange techniques with other decolourising methods, e.g. activated carbon, membrane filtration and multifunction purification media.

Keywords

Melanoidins Hexose degradation products Phenolic compounds Sugar beet Sugar cane Colourant Resin Matrix Functional group Continuous process Discontinuous process Set-up Simulated moving bed 

Abbreviations

AC

Activated carbon

BV

Bed volume

CSEP

Chromatographic separator

DAD

Diode array detector

DOPA

3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine

DVB

Divinylbenzene

ELSD

Evaporative light scattering detector

FAST

Finnsugar-Applexion separation technology

GAE

Gallic acid equivalent

GPC

Gel permeation chromatography

HADP

Hexose alkaline degradation products

HAF

Hydroxyacetylfuran

HDF

Hydroxydimethylfuranone

HMF

Hydroxymethylfurfural

ICUMSA

International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis

IE

Ion-exchange

ISEP

Ion Separator

I-SMB

Intermittent simulated moving bed

IU

ICUMSA unit

MOPS

3-(N-morpholino)propanesulphonic acid

MSA

Micropore surface area

MWCO

Molecular weight cut-off

PAC

Powdered activated carbon

PDA

Photodiode array

RID

Refractive index detector

SAC

Strong-acid cation

SBA

Strong-base anion

SEC

Size exclusion chromatography

SMB

Simulated moving bed

TEA

Triethanolamine

TMB

True moving bed

UF

Ultrafiltration

VHMW

Very high molecular weight

WAC

Weak-acid cation

WBA

Weak-base cation

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Svatopluk Henke
    • 1
  • Andrea Hinkova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Simona Gillarova
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Carbohydrates and Cereals, Faculty of Food and Biochemical TechnologyUniversity of Chemistry and Technology PraguePrague 6Czech Republic

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