Advertisement

Promoting Citizens’ Quality of Life Through Green Urban Planning

  • Teresa Santos
  • Caio Silva
  • José António Tenedório
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 936)

Abstract

In dense urban areas, the pursuit of outdoor thermal comfort is a development goal included in the city’s sustainable plan. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of promoting new green areas, at ground and at rooftop levels, in the thermal comfort of the surrounding urban area. The simulation was made based on a recently concluded requalification project in a Lisbon neighborhood. This project was used as a case study to evaluate the effects of the new vegetation areas at ground level on microclimate and urban comfort [43], while the work of [44] was used as a case study to investigate the effect of green roofs.

The ENVI-met software is used to model the past and present (after requalification) scenarios, and a new scenario with green roofs. The simulation results indicate that the presence of new trees and shrubs results in: (i) increased urban comfort in the morning and in the afternoon resulting from the decrease in temperature; (ii) a reduction of up to 3° in the morning (9 h) and up to 3° in the afternoon (15 h); (iii) an increment of 10% in the relative humidity of the air, and (iv) a slight reduction in natural ventilation in both the morning and afternoon periods.

The microclimate simulation results confirm that vegetation is a key element when planning for comfortable public spaces.

Keywords

Thermal comfort Urban planning Green areas Green roofs 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Logica the opportunity to use the LiDAR data set. This paper presents results partially supported by CICS.NOVA - Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UID/SOC/04647/2013, with the financial support of FCT/MCTES through National funds. The first author was funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, under a post-doctoral grant (Grant SFRH/BPD/76893/2011). The second author was funded by Fundação de Apoio a Pesquisa do Distrito Federal do Brasil (Foundation for Research Support of DF).

References

  1. 1.
    Ali-Toudert, F.: Dependence of outdoor thermal comfort on street design in hot and dry climate. Ph.D. thesis, Universität Freiburg, Freiburg (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alcoforado, M.J., Andrade, H., Lopes, A., Vasconcelos, J., Vieira, R.: Observational studies on summer winds in Lisbon (Portugal) and. Merhavim 6, 88–112 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alcoforado, M.J., Lopes, A.: Windfields and temperature patterns in Lisbon (Portugal) and their modification due to city growth. In: 5th International Conference on Urban Climate (ICUC5), Lodz, Poland, pp. 383–386 (2003). http://www.ceg.ul.pt/climlis/recent_dev_files/alcoforado_lopes.pdf
  4. 4.
    Alexandri, E., Jones, P.: Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates. Build. Environ. Part Spec. Build. Perform. Simul. 43(4), 480–493 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10.055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ali-Toudert, F., Mayer, H.: Effects of asymmetry, galleries, overhanging façades and vegetation on thermal comfort in urban street canyons. Sol. Energy 6, 742–754 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2006.10.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arnfield, A.J.: Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. Int. J. Climatol. 23(1), 1–26 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bates, A.J., Sadler, J.P., Mackay, R.: Vegetation development over four years on two green roofs in the UK. Urban For. Urban Greening 12(1), 98–108 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.12.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benvenuti, S.: Wildflower green roofs for urban landscaping, ecological sustainability and biodiversity. Landscape Urban Plan. 124, 151–161 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berardi, U., GhaffarianHoseini, A., GhaffarianHoseini, A.: State-of-the-art analysis of the environmental benefits of green roofs. Appl. Energy 115, 411–428 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chatzidimitriou, A., Yannas, S.: Street canyon design and improvement potential for urban open spaces; the influence of canyon aspect ratio and orientation on microclimate and outdoor comfort. Sustain. Cities Soc. 33, 85–101 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2017.05.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    CML – Câmara Municipal de Lisboa. Eixo Central – Requalificação do espaço público (2017). http://www.cm-lisboa.pt/viver/urbanismo/espaco-publico/uma-praca-em-cada-bairro/eixo-central
  12. 12.
    CML – Câmara Municipal de Lisboa. Corredores Verdes (2017). http://www.cm-lisboa.pt/viver/ambiente/corredores-verdes
  13. 13.
    Cruz, C.S., Alves, F.L.: A Strategy for Biodiversity, The Lisbon Case. Câmara Municipal de Lisboa (2012). https://www.cbd.int/doc/nbsap/sbsap/pt-sbsap-lisbon-en.pdf
  14. 14.
    de Groot, R.S., Wilson, M.A., Boumans, R.M.: A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecol. Econ. 41(3), 393–408 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D’Souza, U.: The thermal performance of green roofs in a hot. Humid Microclimate 475–86 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.2495/sdp130401
  16. 16.
    Duarte, D.H.S., Shinzato, P., dos Santos Gusson, C., Alves, C.A.: The impact of vegetation on urban microclimate to counterbalance built density in a subtropical changing climate. Urban Clim. Cooling Heat Islands 14(Part 2), 224–239 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2015.09.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fahmy, M., Sharples, S.: On the development of an urban passive thermal comfort system in cairo. Egypt. Build. Environ. 44(9), 1907–1916 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.01.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Francis, R.A., Lorimer, J.: Urban reconciliation ecology: the potential of living roofs and walls. J. Environ. Manag. 92(6), 1429–1437 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.01.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghaffarianhoseini, A., Berardi, U., Ghaffarianhoseini, A.: Thermal performance characteristics of unshaded courtyards in hot and humid climates. Build. Environ. 87, 154–168 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.02.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldberg, V., Kurbjuhn, C., Bernhofer, C.: How relevant is urban planning for the thermal comfort of pedestrians? Numerical case studies in two districts of the city of Dresden (Saxony/Germany). Meteorologische Zeitschrift 739–51 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haaland, C., van den Bosch, C.K.: Challenges and strategies for urban green-space planning in cities undergoing densification: a review. Urban For. Urban Greening 14(4), 760–771 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015.07.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hansen, R., Pauleit, S.: From multifunctionality to multiple ecosystem services? A conceptual framework for multifunctionality in green infrastructure planning for urban areas. AMBIO 43(4), 516–529 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-014-0510-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jamei, E., Rajagopalan, P.: Urban development and pedestrian thermal comfort in Melbourne. Sol. Energy 144, 681–698 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.01.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jendritzky, G., de Dear, R., Havenith, G.: UTCI—why another thermal index? Int. J. Biometeorol. 56(3), 421–428 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-011-0513-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim, H.H.: Urban heat island. Int. J. Remote Sens. 13(12), 2319–2336 (1992).  https://doi.org/10.1080/01431169208904271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee, H., Mayer, H., Chen, L.: Contribution of trees and grasslands to the mitigation of human heat stress in a residential district of Freiburg, Southwest Germany. Landscape Urban Plan. 148, 37–50 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.12.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lehmann, I., Mathey, J., Rößler, S., Bräuer, A., Goldberg, V.: Urban vegetation structure types as a methodological approach for identifying ecosystem services – application to the analysis of micro-climatic effects. In: Ecological Indicators, Contemporary Concepts and Novel Methods Fostering Indicator-Based Approach to Urban Complexities, vol. 42, pp. 58–72 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.02.036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lobaccaro, G., Acero, J.A.: Comparative analysis of green actions to improve outdoor thermal comfort inside typical urban street canyons. Urban Clim. Cooling Heat Islands 14(Part 2), 251–267 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2015.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lopes, A., Alves, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Machete, R.: Lisbon urban heat island updated: new highlights about the relationships between thermal patterns and wind regimes. Adv. Meteorol. 15, e487695 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/487695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Luo, H., et al.: Carbon sequestration potential of green roofs using mixed-sewage-sludge substrate in Chengdu world modern garden city. In: Ecological Indicators, vol. 49, pp. 247–259 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.10.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mayer, H., Höppe, P.: Thermal comfort of man in different urban environments. Theoret. Appl. Climatol. 38(1), 43–49 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Müller, N., Kuttler, W., Barlag, A.-B.: Counteracting urban climate change: adaptation measures and their effect on thermal comfort. Theoret. Appl. Climatol. 115(1–2), 243–257 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0890-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ng, E., Chen, L., Wang, Y., Yuan, C.: A study on the cooling effects of greening in a high-density city: an experience from Hong Kong. In: Building and Environment, International Workshop on Ventilation, Comfort, and Health in Transport Vehicles, vol. 47, pp. 256–271 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.07.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Norton, B.A., Coutts, A.M., Livesley, S.J., Harris, R.J., Hunter, A.M., Williams, N.S.G.: Planning for cooler cities: a framework to prioritise green infrastructure to mitigate high temperatures in urban landscapes. Landscape Urban Plan. 134, 127–138 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.10.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oke, T.R.: City size and the urban heat island. Atmos. Environ. 1967(7–8), 769–779 (1973).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(73)90140-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Oliveira, S., Andrade, H., Vaz, T.: The cooling effect of green spaces as a contribution to the mitigation of urban heat: a case study in Lisbon. Build. Environ. 46(11), 2186–2194 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.04.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Peng, L.L.H., Jim, C.Y.: Economic evaluation of green-roof environmental benefits in the context of climate change: the case of Hong Kong. Urban For. Urban Greening 14(3), 554–561 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Perini, K., Magliocco, A.: Effects of vegetation, urban density, building height, and atmospheric conditions on local temperatures and thermal comfort. Urban For. Urban Greening 13(3), 495–506 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2014.03.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rosheidat, A., Hoffman, D., Bryan, H.: Visualizing Pedestrian Comfort Using Envi-Met, 198–205, Berkeley, California (2008). https://www.academia.edu/8141644/VISUALIZING_PEDESTRIAN_COMFORT_USING_ENVI-MET
  40. 40.
    Rowe, D.B.: Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement. In: Environmental Pollution. Selected Papers from the Conference on Urban Environmental Pollution: Overcoming Obstacles to Sustainability and Quality of Life (UEP2010), Boston, USA, 20–23 June 2010, vol. 159, no. 8–9, pp. 2100–2110 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.10.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Salata, F., et al.: Evaluation of different urban microclimate mitigation strategies through a PMV analysis. Sustainability 7(7), 9012–9030 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.3390/su7079012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Santos, T.: Producing Geographical Information for Land Planning Using VHR Data: Local Scale Applications. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (2011)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Santos, T., Silva, C., Tenedório, J.A.: Modelling urban thermal comfort: evaluating the impact of the urban requalification project of Praça Duque De Saldanha and Avenida da República in Lisbon. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Geographical Information Systems Theory, Applications and Management: GISTAM, vol. 1, pp. 70–80 (2017). ISBN 978-989-758-252-3.  https://doi.org/10.5220/0006324500700080
  44. 44.
    Santos, T., Tenedório, J.A., Gonçalves, J.A.: Quantifying the city’s green area potential gain using remote sensing data. Sustainability 8(12), 1247 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tonietto, R., Fant, J., Ascher, J., Ellis, K., Larkin, D.: A comparison of bee communities of Chicago green roofs, parks and prairies. Landscape Urban Plan. 103(1), 102–108 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.07.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wang, Y., Berardi, U., Akbari, H.: Comparing the effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies for Toronto, Canada. Energy Build. SI: Countermeas. Urban Heat Island 114, 2–19 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.06.046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yahia, M.W., Johansson, E.: Influence of urban planning regulations on the microclimate in a hot dry climate: the example of Damascus, Syria. J. Housing Built Environ. 28(1), 51–65 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10901-012-9280-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yahia, M.W., Johansson, E.: Landscape interventions in improving thermal comfort in the hot dry city of Damascus, Syria—the example of residential spaces with detached buildings. Landscape and Urban Planning 125, 1–16 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yuan, J., Emura, K., Farnham, C.: Is urban albedo or urban green covering more effective for urban microclimate improvement?: a simulation for Osaka. Sustain. Cities Soc. 32, 78–86 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2017.03.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teresa Santos
    • 1
  • Caio Silva
    • 2
  • José António Tenedório
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences (CICS.NOVA)Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities (NOVA FCSH)LisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Faculdade de Arquitetura e UrbanismoUniversidade de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil

Personalised recommendations