Polarization Singularities Nucleation in the Self-focusing of an Elliptically Polarized Laser Beam in Kerr Medium and Isotropic Phase of Nematic Liquid Crystal
The possibility of C-points formation is shown in the process of the self-focusing of an originally homogeneously elliptically polarized Gaussian beam in an isotropic nonlinear medium and in isotropic phase of nematic liquid crystal, the temperature of which is close to the temperature of nematic-isotropic phase transition. In the case of axial symmetry of incident beam’s intensity profile the generation of C-lines, which have the shape of circumference, is possible in separate planes, which are perpendicular to the axis of the beam. If the axial symmetry of the incident beam’s intensity profile is broken C-lines become three-dimensional curves and there is a propagation coordinate domain, in which two pairs of C-points exist. The total topological charge of these four C-points equals zero.
The authors acknowledge financial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 16-02-00154).
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