Influence Factors Analysis on Scavenging of Chlorine Impurity from Crude Titanium Sponge

  • Liang Li
  • Fuxing Zhu
  • Dachun LiuEmail author
  • Kaihua Li
  • Zhuo Sheng
  • Baoqiang Xu
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Titanium is exceptional value to industry, military and consumer applications due to the attractive combination of properties exhibited by metallic titanium and its alloys. The Kroll reduction reaction is a complex heterogeneous exothermic reaction with the possibility of the formation of TiCl2 and TiCl3 as reaction intermediates. Chlorine impurity has been a significant technical challenge in titanium production ever since the inception of the Kroll processes themselves. In this investigation, an attempt was made to check the influence factors of titanium sponge structure, raw materials, times of distillation and vacuum distillation process parameters on chorine impurity scavenging. The results indicate that the decrease of Ti sponge porosity increased the difficulty of chloride impurities removing. Chlorine content increased rapidly from 0.012 to 0.121% when the system pressure grew from 0.1 to 12 Pa in the vacuum distillation process. The chlorine content in titanium sponge was also increased with the increase of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 impurities in Mg reductant.


Chlorine impurity Titanium sponge Vacuum distillation Kroll process 



This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation of China (No. 51874156), Transfer Payment Program of Sichuan Province of China (No. 2017GZYZF0039) and the Scientific Research Item of Panzhihua City (No. 2017CY-G-5). The encouragement of academician Dai Yongnian is greatly appreciated.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liang Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fuxing Zhu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Dachun Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kaihua Li
    • 2
  • Zhuo Sheng
    • 2
  • Baoqiang Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum MetallurgyKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Vanadium and Titanium Comprehensive UtilizationPangang Group Research Institute Co. Ltd.PanzhihuaChina
  3. 3.College of Materials and Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of TechnologyChengduChina

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