Advertisement

The Origins and Ecology of the Galapagos Islands

  • Daniel KelleyEmail author
  • Kevin Page
  • Diego Quiroga
  • Raul Salazar
Chapter
Part of the Geoheritage, Geoparks and Geotourism book series (GGAG)

Abstract

Oceanic islands have a series of characteristics that make them unique for understanding biological evolutionary processes. One of the main characteristics of oceanic islands is that the distance between the mainland and the islands acts as an important biological filter. In the case of archipelagoes, the distance between islands is also an important factor that generates the conditions for the generation of speciation process in the case of many organisms. Many species of plants and animals are not able to survive the long-distance travel and of those organisms that are able to arrive, few succeed in becoming established on islands. This is a characteristic that explains the existence of certain biological processes that are typical of oceanic islands, including the founder effect, genetic drift, disharmonic biota, adaptive radiation, dwarfism and gigantism, ecological release, high endemism and rapid island evolution.

References

  1. Arbogast BS, Drovetski SV, Curry RL, Boag PT, Seutin G, Grant PR, Grant BR, Anderson DJ (2006) The origin and diversification of Galapagos mockingbird. Evolution 60(2):370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Axelrod DI (1972) Ocean floor spreading in relation to ecosystematic problems. In: Allen RR, James FC (eds) Symposium on ecosystematics. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, AR, pp 15–76Google Scholar
  3. Barthlott W, Porembski S (1994) Die Kakteen der Galápagos-Inseln. In: Zizka G & Klemmer K (Hrsg) Pflanzen- und Tierwelt der GalápagosInseln.—Kleine Senckenbergreihe 20, Palmengarten Sonderheft 22: 76–80Google Scholar
  4. Beheregaray LB et al (2004) Giant tortoises are not so slow: rapid diversification and biogeographic consensus in the Galapagos. Proc National Acad Sci 101:17.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0400393101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benavides E, Baum R, Snell HM, Snell HL, Sites W (2009) Island biogeography of Galapagos lava lizards (Tropiduridae: Microlophus): species diversity and colonization of the Archipelago the society for the study of evolution. Evolution 63–6:1606–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breure ASH (1979) Systematics, phylogeny and zoogeography of Bulimulinae (Mollusca). Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  7. Bustamante RH, Wellington GM, Branch GM, Edgar GJ, Martinez P, Rivera F, Smith F, Witman J (2002) Outstanding Marine Features. In: Bensted-Smith R (ed) A biodiversity vision for the Galapagos Islands. Charles Darwin Foundation and World Wildlife Fund, Puerto Ayora, pp 60–71Google Scholar
  8. Caccone A, Gibbs JP, Ketmaier V, Suatoni E, Powell JR (1999) Origin and evolutionary relationships of giant Galapagos tortoises. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:13223–13228.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.23.13223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caccone A, Gentile G, Gibbs JP, Fritts TH, Snell HL, Betts J, Powell JR (2002) Phylogeography and history of giant Galapagos tortoises. Evolution 56:2052–2066.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00131.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caccone A, Gentile G, Burns C, Sezzi E, Bergman W, Powell JR (2004) Extreme difference in rate of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evolution in a large ectotherm. Galapagos tortoises. Mol. Phylogenet, Evol, p 31Google Scholar
  11. Campbell KJ, Donlan CJ, Cruz F, Carrion V (2004) Eradication of feral goats (Capra hircus) from Pinta Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. Oryx 38:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chambers SM (1991) Biogeography of Galapagos land snails. In: James MJ (ed) Galapagos marine invertebrates. Plenum, New York, pp 307–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cruz F, Carrion V, Campbell KJ, Lavoie C, Donlan CJ (2009) Bio-economics of large-scale eradication of feral goats from Santiago Island, Galapagos. J Wildl Manag 73(2):191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christie DM, Duncan RA, Mc Birney AR, Richards MA, White WM, Harpp KS, Fox CG (1992) Drowned islands downstream from the Galapagos hotspot imply extended speciation times. Nature 355:246–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark DA (1984) In: Perry R (ed) Native land mammals in key environments: Galapagos. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, pp 225–231Google Scholar
  16. Darwin CR (1845) Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world, under the Command of Capt. FitzRoy RN, John Murray, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  17. Dowler R, Carroll DS, Edwards CW (2000) Rediscovery of rodents (Genus Nesoryzomys) considered extinct in the Galapagos Islands. Oryx 34(2):109Google Scholar
  18. Finet Y (1991) The marine molluscs of the Galápagos Islands. In: James MJ (ed) Galápagos Marine Invertebrates: Taxonomy, Biogeography, and Evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Fleischer RC, McIntosh CE, Tarr CL (1998) Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K–Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates. Mol Ecol 7:533.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00364.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gentile G (2009) Iguanas terrestres: Descubrimento de una nueva especie. In: de Roy T (ed) Galapagos: cincuenta anos de ciencia y conservacion. Parque Nacional Galapagos, pp 114–121Google Scholar
  21. Grant PR, Grant BR (2008) How and why species multiply: the radiation of Darwin’s finches. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  22. Harvey AW (1991) Biogeographic patterns of the Galápagos porcelain crab fauna. In: James MJ (ed) Galápagos marine invertebrates: taxonomy, biogeography, and evolution in Darwin’s Islands. Plenum, New York, pp 157–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haug GH, Tiedemann R (1998) Effect of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama on Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. Nature 393:673–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hobbs R, Higgs E, Harris J (2009) Novel ecosystems implications for conservation and restoration. Trends Conserv Evol 24(11):599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hobbs RJ, Higgs ES, Hall CA (eds) (2013) Novel ecosystems: intervening in the new ecological world order. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. Ingala P, Orstom I (1989) Inventario Cartográfico de los Recursos Naturales, Geomorfología, Vegetación, Hídricos, Ecológicos y Biofísicos de las Islas Galápagos, Ecuador. 1:100,000 maps. INGALA, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  27. Jordan MA, Snell HL (2008) Historical fragmentation of islands and genetic drift in populations of Galapagos lava lizards (Microlophus albermarlensis complex). Mol Ecol 14:859–867.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2005.02452.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Juan C, Emerson BC, Oromı́ P, Hewitt GM (2000) Colonization and diversification: towards a phylogeographic synthesis for the Canary Islands. Trends Ecol Evol 15(3):104–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koopman KF, McCracken GF (1998) The taxonomic status of Lasiurus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Galapagos Islands. American Museum of Natural HistoryGoogle Scholar
  30. Kennedy M et al (2009) The Phylogenetic position of the Galápagos cormorant. Mol Phylogenetics Evol 53(1):94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.06.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kizirian D, Trager A, Donnelly MA, Wright JW (2004) Evolution of Galapagos Island lava lizards (Iguania: Tropiduridae: Microlophus). Mol Phylogenet Evol 32:761–769.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2004.04.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kohn AJ (1972) Conus-miliaris at Easter Island—ecological release of diet and habitat in an isolated population. Am Zool 12:712Google Scholar
  33. Krajick K (2005) Winning the war against island invaders. Science 310:1412. www.sciencemag.orgCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Landry B (2002) Galagete, a new genus of Autostichidae representing the first case of an extensive radiation of endemic Lepidoptera in the Galapagos Islands. Rev Suisse Zool 109:813–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Losos JB, Ricklefs RE (2009) Adaptation and diversification on islands. Nature 457:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Macarthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of Island biogeography. REV—Revised ed., JSTOR, Princeton University Press. www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt19cc1t2
  37. McMullen CK (1990) Reproductive biology of Galapagos Islands angiosperms. In: Lawesson JA, and others ed(s). Botanical research and management in Galapagos. Proceedings of a workshop on… held 11–18 April 1987 at the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador. St. Louis, Mo., Missouri Botanical Garden (Monographs in Systematic Botany), vol 32, pp 35–45—illus., map.. En Reproductive biology. Geog Floristics (SOUTH_AMERICA: GALAPAGOS_ISLANDS)Google Scholar
  38. McMullen CK (1987) Breeding systems of selected Galápagos Islands angiosperms. Am J Bot 74:1694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McMullen CK (1989a) The Galápagos carpenter bee, just how important is it? Noticias de Galápa-gos 48:16Google Scholar
  40. McMullen CK (1989b) Flowering colonizers of the Galápagos Islands: drab but not dull. Plants Today 2Google Scholar
  41. McMullen CK (1990) Reproductive biology of Galápagos Islands angiosperms. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 32Google Scholar
  42. McMullen CK (1999) Flowering plants of the Galapagos. Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  43. Miralles A, Macleod A, Rodríguez A, Ibáñez A, Jiménez-Uzcategui G, Quezada G, Vences M, Steinfartz S (2017) Shedding light on the imps of darkness: an integrative taxonomic revision of the Galápagos Marine Iguanas (Genus Amblyrhynchus). Zool J Linn Soc 10:1–33Google Scholar
  44. Murcia C, Aronson J, Kattan GH, Moreno-Mateos D, Kingsley D, Simberloff D (2014) A critique of the “novel ecosystem” concept. Trends Ecol Evol 29:548–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Paulay G (1994) Biodiversity on Oceanic Islands: its origin and extinction. Integr Compar Biol 34(11):134–144.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/34.1.134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Parent CE, Caccone A, Petren K (2008) Colonization and diversification of Galapagos terrestrial fauna: a phylogenetic and biogeographical synthesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesGoogle Scholar
  47. Parent CE, Crespi BJ (2006) Sequential colonization and diversification of Galapagos endemic land snail genus Bulimulus (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora). Evolution 60:2311–2328Google Scholar
  48. Parent C, Crespi BJ (2009) Source ecological opportunity in adaptive radiation of Galápagos endemic land snails. Am Nat 174(6):898–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Páez-Rosas D, Aurioles-Gamboa D (2010) Alimentary niche partitioning in the Galapagos Sea Lion Zalophus Wollebaeki. Marine Biol 157(12):2769–2781.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-010-1535-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Peck SB (2006) The beetles of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador: evolution, ecology, and diversity (Insecta: Coleoptera). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  51. Porter DM (1983) Vascular plants of the Galapagos: origins and dispersal. In: Bowman RI, Berson M, Leviton AE (eds) Patterns of evolution in Galapagos organisms. San Francisco, California, Pacific Division of AAAS, pp 33–96Google Scholar
  52. Poulakakis N, Mylonas M, Lymberakis P, Fassoulas C (2002) Origin and taxonomy of the fossil elephants of the island of Crete (Greece): problems and perspectives. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 186(1–2):163–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-0182(02)00451-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Powell JR, Caccone A (2006) A quick guide to Galapagos tortoises. Curr Biol 16:R144–R145.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.02.050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Powell JR, Caccone A (2008) CSI tortoise: unraveling the mystery of mysteries. Galapagos News 26:8–9Google Scholar
  55. Pritchard PCH (1996) The Galapagos tortoises: nomenclatural and survival status Lunenburg. Chelonian Res Found, MAGoogle Scholar
  56. Quiroga D, Rivas G (2016) Restoration: novel ecosystems and hybrid environments. In: Quiroga D, Sevilla A (eds) Darwin, Darwinism and conservation. Springer, NYGoogle Scholar
  57. Raia P, Meiri S (2006) The Island rule in large mammals: paleontology meets ecology. Evolution 60(8):1731–1742.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2006.tb00516.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rassmann K (1997) Evolutionary age of the Galapagos iguanas predates the age of the present Galapagos Islands. Mol Phylogen Evol 7(2):158–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rentería JL, Gardener MR, Panetta FD, Atkinson R, Crawley MJ (2012) Possible impacts of the invasive plant Rubus niveus on the native vegetation of the Scalesia forest in the Galapagos Islands. PLoS ONE 7(10):e48106.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schmitz P, Cibois A, Landry B (2007) Molecular phylogeny and dating of an insular endemic moth radiation inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes: the genus Galagete (Lepidoptera: Austostichidae) of the Gala´pagos Islands. Mol Phylogenet Evol 45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2007.05.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sequeira AS, Lanteri AA, Albelo LR, Bhattacharya S, Sijapati M (2008) Colonization history, ecological shifts and diversification in the evolution of endemic Galápagos weevils. Mol Ecol 17(4):1089–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Snow DW, Nelson JB (1984) Evolution and adaptations of Galapagos sea-birds. Biol J Linn Soc 21(1–2):137–155.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1984.tb02057.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stocklin J (2009) Darwin and the plants of the Galápagos-Islands. Bauhinia 21:33–34Google Scholar
  64. Sulloway FJ (1982) Darwin and his finches: the evolution of a legend. J Hist Biol 15(1):1–53.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00132004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Traveset A, Heleno R, Chamorro S, Vargas P, McMullen CK, Castro-Urgal R, Nogales M, Herrera HW, Olesen JM (2013) Invaders of pollination networks in the Galapagos Islands: emergence of novel communities. Proc Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 280(1758):20123040.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.3040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Trillmich F (1981) Mutual mother-pup recognition in Galápagos fur seals and sea lions: cues used and functional significance. Behaviour 78(1/2):21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Trueman M, d’Ozouville N (2010) Characterizing the Galapagos terrestrial climate in the face of global climate change by: Galapagos Research 67:26–37Google Scholar
  68. Tye A, Ortega JF (2011) Origins and evolution of Galapagos endemic vascular plants. The biology of Island floras. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  69. Valle C (1986) Status of the Galápagos penguin and flightless cormorant. Noticias Galápagos 43:16–17Google Scholar
  70. Valle CA (1993) The evolution of mate desertion in flightless cormorants. In: Merlen-Davis G (ed) Charles Darwin Research Station Annual Report 1988–1989. Charles Darwin Foundation, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador, pp 97–99Google Scholar
  71. Valle CA (1994) The ecology and evolution of sequential polyandry in Galápagos cormorants (Compsohalieus [Nannopterum] harrisi). Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, Princeton, USAGoogle Scholar
  72. Valle CA, Coulter MC (1987) Present status of the flightless cormorant, Galápagos penguin and greater flamingo populations in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, after the 1982–1983 El Niño. Condor 89:276–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Van Den Bergh GD, Rokhus DA, Morwood MJ, Sutikna T, Jatmiko, Saptomo EW (2008) The youngest Stegodon remains in Southeast Asia from the Late Pleistocene archaeological site Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia. Q Int 182(1): 16–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2007.02.001. Retrieved 27 Nov 2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vargas P, Heleno R, Traveset A, Nogales M (2012) Colonization of the Galapagos Islands by plants with no specific syndromes for long-distance dispersal: a new perspective. Ecography 35(33–43):2012Google Scholar
  75. Villegas-Amtmann S, Costa DP, Tremblay Y, Salazar S, Aurioles-Gamboa D (2008) Multiple foraging strategies in a marine apex predator, the Galapagos sea lion Zalophus wollebaeki. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 363:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Walters SM, Stow EA (2002) Darwin’s mentor. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59146-5Google Scholar
  77. Wagner WL, Funk VA (eds) (1995) Hawaiian bio- geography: evolution on a hot spot archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  78. Walsh SJ, McCleary AL, Mena CF, Shao Y, Tuttle JP, González A, Atkinson R (2008) QuickBird and Hyperion data analysis of an invasive plant species in the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador: implications for control and land use management. Remote Sens Environ 112(5):1927–1941.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2007.06.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Weston EM, Lister AM (2009) Insular dwarfism in hippos and a model for brain size reduction in Homo floresiensis. Nature 459(7243):85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Whittaker R, Fernandez P (2007) Island biogeography, ecology, evolution and conservation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  81. Wiggins IL, Porter DM (2018) Flora of the Galapagos Islands. Stanford University Press, 1971, p 1020. www.sup.org/books/title/?id=3. Accessed 8 Apr 2018
  82. Wikelski M, Corinna T (2000) Marine iguanas shrink to survive El Niño. Nature 403Google Scholar
  83. Wolf M et al (2007) The evolution of animal personalities. Animal Personalities 8 Nov. 2007, pp 252–275.  https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226922065.003.0010
  84. Wright JW (1983) The evolution and biogeography of the lizards of the Galapagos Archipelago: evolutionary genetics of Phyllodactylus and Tropidurus populations. In: Bowman RI, Berson M, Leviton AE (eds) Patterns of evolution in Galápagos organisms. Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, CA, pp 123–155Google Scholar
  85. Wyles JS, Sarich VM (1983) Are the Galápagos iguanas older than the Gal´apagos. In: Bowman RI, Berson M, Levinton AE (eds) Patterns of evolution in Galapagos organisms. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division, San Francisco, CA, pp 177–185Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Kelley
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kevin Page
    • 2
  • Diego Quiroga
    • 3
  • Raul Salazar
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Natural ResourcesHocking CollegeNelsonvilleUSA
  2. 2.Geodiversity & HeritageSandford, DevonUK
  3. 3.Universidad San Francisco de QuitoCumbayaEcuador
  4. 4.Biological Expeditions GalapagosPuerto Baquerizo MorenoEcuador

Personalised recommendations