Robust Trajectory Execution for Multi-robot Teams Using Distributed Real-time Replanning
Robust trajectory execution is an extension of cooperative collision avoidance that takes pre-planned trajectories directly into account. We propose an algorithm for robust trajectory execution that compensates for a variety of dynamic changes, including newly appearing obstacles, robots breaking down, imperfect motion execution, and external disturbances. Robots do not communicate with each other and only sense other robots’ positions and the obstacles around them. At the high-level we use a hybrid planning strategy employing both discrete planning and trajectory optimization with a dynamic receding horizon approach. The discrete planner helps to avoid local minima, adjusts the planning horizon, and provides good initial guesses for the optimization stage. Trajectory optimization uses a quadratic programming formulation, where all safety-critical parts are formulated as hard constraints. At the low-level, we use buffered Voronoi cells as a multi-robot collision avoidance strategy. Compared to ORCA, our approach supports higher-order dynamic limits and avoids deadlocks better. We demonstrate our approach in simulation and on physical robots, showing that it can operate in real time.
This research was supported in part by Office of Naval Research grant N00014-14-1-073 and National Science Foundation grant 1724399. B. Şenbaşlar gratefully acknowledges the support from the Fulbright program sponsored by U.S. Department of State.
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