Maximus: A Hybrid Particle-in-Cell Code for Microscopic Modeling of Collisionless Plasmas

  • Julia Kropotina
  • Andrei Bykov
  • Alexandre Krassilchtchikov
  • Ksenia Levenfish
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 965)


A second-order accurate divergence-conserving hybrid particle-in-cell code Maximus has been developed for microscopic modeling of collisionless plasmas. The main specifics of the code include a constrained transport algorithm for exact conservation of magnetic field divergence, a Boris-type particle pusher, a weighted particle momentum deposit on the cells of the 3d spatial grid, an ability to model multispecies plasmas, and an adaptive time step. The code is efficiently parallelized for running on supercomputers by means of the message passing interface (MPI) technology; an analysis of parallelization efficiency and overall resource intensity is presented. A Maximus simulation of the shocked flow in the Solar wind is shown to agree well with the observations of the Ion Release Module (IRM) aboard the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers interplanetary mission.


Hybrid particle-in-cell modeling High-performance computing Shocked collisionless plasmas The Solar wind 



Some of the presented modeling was performed at the “Tornado” subsystem of the supercomputing center of St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, whose support is readily acknowledged.

Supplementary material (2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (zip 2002 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Kropotina
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrei Bykov
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexandre Krassilchtchikov
    • 1
  • Ksenia Levenfish
    • 1
  1. 1.Ioffe InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

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