Ballistic Resistance Modeling of Aramid Fabric with Surface Treatment

  • Natalia Yu. DolganinaEmail author
  • Anastasia V. Ignatova
  • Alexandra A. Shabley
  • Sergei B. Sapozhnikov
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 965)


The minimization of mass and reducing the value of deflection of the back surface of an armored panel, which will lower the level of trauma to the human body, are crucial tasks in the current development of body armors. A significant part of the bullet energy is dissipated due to the friction of pulling-out yarns from ballistic fabrics in the body armor. We present a method for controlling the process of dry friction between yarns – surface treatment with various compositions (PVA suspension, rosin). This procedure causes only a slight increase weighting of the fabric. We investigated an impact loading of aramid fabrics of plain weave P110 with different types of surface treatment and without it (the samples were located on the backing material – technical plasticine). The indenter speed was in the range of 100–130 m/s. We also developed a model of an impact loading of considered samples in explicit FE code LS-DYNA. The surface treatment of the fabric in the model was taken into account by only one parameter – the coefficient of dry friction. We considered several methods of the task parallelizing. Numerical experiments were conducted to study the problem scalability. We found that the surface treatment reduces deflection of fabric up to 37% with an increase in weight up to 5.1%. The numerical values of the depths of the dents in the technical plasticine are in good agreement with the experimental data.


Supercomputer modelling FEA model Aramid fabric Impact Surface treatment Frictional coefficient Technical plasticine LS-DYNA 



The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 17-08-01024 A.


  1. 1.
    Zhu, D., Soranakom, C., Mobasher, B., Rajan, S.D.: Experimental study and modeling of single yarn pull-out behavior of Kevlar® 49 fabric. Compos. Part A 42, 868–879 (2011). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nilakantan, G., Merrill, R.L., Keefe, M., Gillespie Jr., J.W., Wetzel, E.D.: Experimental investigation of the role of frictional yarn pull-out and windowing on the probabilistic impact response of Kevlar fabrics. Compos. Part B 68, 215–229 (2015). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Das, S., Jagan, S., Shaw, A., Pal, A.: Determination of inter-yarn friction and its effect on ballistic response of para-aramid woven fabric under low velocity impact. Compos. Struct. 120, 129–140 (2015). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dolganina, N.Yu.: Deformirovanie i razrushenie sloistykh tkanevykh plastin pri lokal’nom udare. Ph.D. thesis [Deformation and fracture layered tissue plates under local impact. Ph.D. thesis], Chelyabinsk, 128 p. (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhatnagar, A.: Lightweight Ballistic Composites, p. 429. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahmad, M.R., Ahmad, W.Y.W., Salleh, J., Samsuri, A.: Effect of fabric stitching on ballistic impact resistance of natural rubber coated fabric systems. Mater. Des. 29, 1353–1358 (2008). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Karahan, M., Kus, A., Eren, R.: An investigation into ballistic performance and energy absorption capabilities of woven aramid fabrics. Int. J. Impact Eng. 35, 499–510 (2008). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kang, T.J., Lee, S.H.: Effect of stitching on the mechanical and impact properties of woven laminate composite. J. Compos. Mater. 28(16), 1574–1587 (1994). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Park, J.L., Yoon II, B., Paik, J.G., Kang, T.J.: Ballistic performance of p-aramid fabrics impregnated with shear thickening fluid; Part I – effect of laminating sequence. Text. Res. J. 82(6), 527–541 (2012). Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahmad, M.R., Ahmad, W.Y.W., Samsuri, A., Salleh, J., Abidin, M.H.: Blunt trauma performance of fabric systems utilizing natural rubber coated high strength fabrics. In: Proceeding of the International Conference on Advancement of Materials and Nanotechnology, ICAMN 2007, Langkawi, 29 May–1 June 2007, vol. 1217, pp. 328–334 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gawandi, A., Thostenson, E.T., Gilllespie Jr., J.W.: Tow pullout behavior of polymer-coated Kevlar fabric. J. Mater. Sci. 46, 77–89 (2011). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Majumdar, A., Butola, B.S., Srivastava, A.: Development of soft composite materials with improved impact resistance using Kevlar fabric and nano-silica based shear thickening fluid. Mater. Des. 54, 295–300 (2014). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee, B.-W., Kim, I.-J., Kim, Ch.-G.: The influence of the particle size of silica on the ballistic performance of fabrics impregnated with silica colloidal suspension. J. Compos. Mater. 43(23), 2679–2698 (2009). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee, B.-W., Kim, C.-G.: Computational analysis of shear thickening fluid impregnated fabrics subjected to ballistic impacts. Adv. Compos. Mater. 21(2), 177–192 (2012). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hassan, T.A., Rangari, V.K., Jeelani, S.: Synthesis, processing and characterization of shear thickening fluid (STF) impregnated fabric composites. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527, 2892–2899 (2010). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mayo Jr., J.B., Wetzel, E.D., Hosur, M.V., Jeelani, S.: Stab and puncture characterization of thermoplastic-impregnated aramid fabrics. Int. J. Impact Eng. 36, 1095–1105 (2009). Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bazhenov, S.L., Goncharuk, G.P.: A Study of Yarn Friction in Aramid Fabrics. Polym. Sci. Ser. A 54(10), 803–808 (2012). Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lim, C.T., Shim, V.P.W., Ng, Y.H.: Finite-element modeling of the ballistic impact of fabric armor. Int. J. Impact Eng. 28, 13–31 (2003). Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tan, V.B.C., Ching, T.W.: Computational simulation of fabric armor subjected to ballistic impacts. Int. J. Impact Eng. 32(11), 1737–1751 (2006). Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barauskasa, R., Abraitiene, A.: Computational analysis of impact of a bullet against the multilayer fabrics in LS-DYNA. Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 1286–1305 (2007). Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ha-Minh, C., Imad, A., Kanit, T., Boussu, F.: Numerical analysis of a ballistic impact on textile fabric. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 69, 32–39 (2013). Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sapozhnikov, S.B., Forental, M.V., Dolganina, N.Yu.: Improved methodology for ballistic limit and blunt trauma estimation for use with hybrid metal/textile body armor. In: Proceeding of Conference “Finite Element Modelling of Textiles and Textile Composites”, vol. 1. CD-ROM, St-Petersburg (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gatouillat, S., Bareggi, A., Vidal-Sallé, E., Boisse, P.: Meso modelling for composite preform shaping – simulation of the loss of cohesion of the woven fibre network. Compos. Part A 54, 135–144 (2013). Scholar
  24. 24.
    LS-DYNA R7.0 Keyword user’s manual. Accessed 11 Apr 2018
  25. 25.
    Ignatova, A.V., Dolganina, N.Yu., Sapozhnikov, S.B., Shabley, A.A.: Aramid fabric surface treatment and its impact on the mechanics of yarn’s frictional interaction. PNRPU Mech. Bull. 4, 121–137 (2017). Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nilakantan, G., Nutt, S.: Effects of clamping design on the ballistic impact response of soft body armor. Compos. Struct. 108, 137–150 (2014). Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nilakantan, G., Wetzel, E.D., Bogetti, T.A., Gillespie, J.W.: Finite element analysis of projectile size and shape effects on the probabilistic penetration response of high strength fabrics. Compos. Struct. 94(5), 1846–1854 (2012). Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nilakantan, G., Keefe, M., Wetzel, E.D., Bogetti, T.A., Gillespie, J.W.: Effect of statistical yarn tensile strength on the probabilistic impact response of woven fabrics. Compos. Sci. Technol. 72(2), 320–329 (2012). Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sapozhnikov, S.B., Ignatova, A.V.: Mechanical properties of technical plasticine under static and dynamic loadings. PNRPU Mech. Bull. 2, 201–219 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kostenetskiy, P.S., Safonov, A.Y.: SUSU supercomputer resources. In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Scientific Conference on Parallel Computing Technologies (PCT 2016), Arkhangelsk, vol. 1576, pp. 561–573 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.South Ural State UniversityChelyabinskRussia

Personalised recommendations